Diffusion In Agar Cubes

  1. in terms of maximizing diffusion, what was the most effective size cube of you tested? the most effective size cube is 1 cm cubes of maximizing diffusion.
  2. why was that size most effective at maximizing diffusion? what arex` important factors that affect how materials diffuse into cells or tissues? The 1cm cube was the most effective due to it having a smaller surface area than the other cubes, this makes it easier to cover the entire thing. Important factors that affect diffusion in cells or tissues are temperature, material, size and polarity.
  3. if a large surface area is helpful to cells, why do cells not grow to be very large? Surface area affects the volume and if an object has a high volume it will take a greater amount of time to diffuse even though it may have a lot of surface area. This is why cells do not grow very large.
  4. You have three cubes, A, B, and C. they have surfaced to volume ratios of 3:1, 6:2, and 7:3 respectively. Which of these cubes is going to be the most effective at maximizing diffusion, how do you know this? The 7:3 ratio cube will be the most effective at maximizing diffusion because of the balance of surface area to volume. It will have the most effective diffusion out of the three cubes.
  5. How does your body adapt to surface area-to-volume ratios to help exchange gasses? In our body have adapted in order to use large surface area organs that help exchange gases better
  6. Why can’t certain cells, like bacteria, get to be the size of a small fish? Cells like bacteria cannot get to be the size of a small fish because they need to divide in order to keep a good surface area to volume ratio. Additionally, bacteria depend on their organelles for survival whereas larger, multicellular organisms have specialized cells which they can depend on.


Translation paper model

  1. describe the process of translation initiation, elongation, and termination.
  2.     1.1 initiation: the protein synthesized from the information contained in a molecule of mRNA. The start codon in all mRNA molecules has the sequence AUG and codes for methionine. Next, the large ribosomal subunit binds to form the complete initiation complex.
    1.   elongation: Ribosome holds mRNA and allows complimentary tRNA to attach to binding sites. tRNA binds to ‘P’ site and another tRNA binds to ‘A’ site. The binding causes a change, the amino acid lets go of tRNA and bind to neighbouring amino acids
    2. termination:  which occurs when a stop codon arrives in the ribosomal A-site and is recognized by a trans-acting protein
    3. How did today’s activity to a good job of modelling the process of translation? In what ways was our model inaccurate?                    today activity went well and I understood how does the process of translation works.

DNA and Protein synthesis

  1. explain the structure of DNA- use the terms nucleotides, antiparallel strands and complementary base pairing?         DNA is a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.  antiparallel strands are the term applied to two molecules that are side by side but run in opposite directions. The two strands of DNA are antiparallel. The head of one strand is always laid against the tail of the other strand of DNA. complementary base pairing is the phenomenon wherein DNA guanine always hydrogen bonds to cytosine and adenine always bind to thymine.2.
  2. how does this activity help model the structure of DNA? what changes could we make to improve the accuracy of this model? be detailed and constructive. this allows us to represent each part of the DNA strand by using a physical object that makes us understand how to place the DNA structure                                                                                            1. When does DNA replication occur?
    DNA replication occurs before cell division during the interface of mitosis after the check for size efficiency.                 2. Names and describe the 3 steps involved in DNA replication. Why does the process occur differently on the leading and lagging strands?  first is unwinding which is when the DNA unfolds and unzips when the two H bonds let go. Then there is the Complimentary base pairing step which is when nucleotides move into place and form H bonds with matching the stand. Lastly, there is Joining where DNA ligase attaches to the lagging strand.                   3. What did you do to model the complementary base pairing and joining of adjacent nucleotides steps of DNA replication? In what ways was this activity well suited to showing this process? In what ways was it inaccurate?            We showed H bonds attaching to another H bond. And we showed the red long candy as the DNA ligase going on the lagging strand. It is hard to determine which is lacking strands