Rube Goldberg – Tea Maker

(The following is a silly machine that takes unnecessary steps through different energy transfers to make a cuppa)

Machine Diagram

A. In this step, the chemical energy from the food I ate lets me move my arm (mechanical energy) to knock over the domino’s

B. In this step, the domino’s cause a chain reaction which knocks them all over; eventually, knocking over a yoyo. This is still mechanical energy.

C. In this step, the yoyo gets pushed down a slide (mechanical energy) by the energy from the domino’s (mechanical energy).

D. In this step, the electric kettle is turned on by the mechanical energy from the yoyo. This causes the kettle to start to draw electricity from the house to heat up water (thermal energy: conduction)

E. In this step, the steam is produced from the kettle heating up water (thermal energy), and this steam rises to push a teeter totter (mechanical energy).

F. In this step, the teeter totter moves down on the side with the teabag on it (mechanical energy), and the tea bag falls into the cup (gravitational energy).

Types of Energy in this Machine:

Chemical: The energy stored in the bonds between atoms that hold molecules together.

Mechanical: The movement of objects or substances from one place to another.

Thermal: The internal energy of a substance due to the vibration of its atoms or molecules.

Gravitational: The energy of an object because of its position of height.

Core Competencies

coming soon…


Wonder Project 2.0: String Theory

Last year I did a “Wonder Project” on Time Dilation. In this kind of project we have to ask ourselves a meaningful question (in the field of science), research about it, and make a blog post with all of our findings. This year we are doing a “Wonder Project” again, but it has to be space oriented.

My inquiry question for “Wonder Project 2.0” is:

What is “String Theory” and how does it explain our universe?

The Main Idea: Strings and a Theory of Everything

String theory is a theory that describes all forces and particles with one entity, the string. To do this, it tries to bring together elements of quantum physics and Einstein’s theory of relativity. It is basically a theory that tries to explain everything beyond our standard model of physics (beyond atoms, and subatomic particles).

How it’s Supposed to Work

String theory theorizes that everything in the universe is made up of tiny vibrating strings having a Planck length of about 10^-35 meters. They vibrate in different ways to make up all of the atomic and subatomic particles.

These strings could be open, form loops, merge with other strings, or divide into sub-strings. Like waves or particles from quantum mechanics, which string theory extends from, the strings aren’t made of any substance. If the theory is correct, these fundamental strings just are. They are like a kind of force. To make this theory work mathematically, there has to be eleven dimensions. Three spacial dimensions (up/down, left/right, and forward/backward), time, and seven more dimensions that are hidden from human senses because of their subatomic size, or because we are stuck in the four known dimensions and the others extend off from them.

How String Theory was Created

Unlike Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, String theory was created by many theoretical physicists over a long period of time. When it was first proposed, the strings were either closed or open, and there was no concept of an extra 7 dimensions. String theory lost traction in the world of science because of difficulties with the mathematics, but in the early 1980s there were two new mathematical discoveries that got it back on track. The first one was by using ten dimensions. The second one was by using something called the E(8) × E(8) symmetry model. By combining both of these concepts it repaired the mathematical difficulties string theory couldn’t previously overcome. Later, physicists Michael Green and John Schwarz, found that string theory could explain known particles, their behavior, and solve the point particle problem, and in 1995, another discovery showed that string theory could be combined with another theory called Supergravity, which used eleven dimensions instead of ten. Eventually it got to the point where the string theory we know today is actually now called Super String theory.

A Problem with Quantum Physics

In quantum physics, there has long been an issue with point particles. A point particle mathematically defined is a point, but, with a diameter of zero. At least a point that has a diameter that approaches zero. With all of the mathematics we have today forces on particles are related to the distance between particles; forces like magnetism and gravity. If something is infinitely small, then the radius, also being infinitely small causes the mathematics to grow the forces to infinite levels. So, point particles cause a paradox. The problem with Quantum Physics is you have these point particles that are infinitely small colliding with each other that should produce mathematically infinitely large forces but in reality, they don’t. This doesn’t make sense to the physicists, but in String theory, this problem doesn’t occur.


To conclude, string theory is a theory that attempts to explain all forces and all matter in the universe using very small, vibrating strings and an extra seven dimensions, sadly, we cannot observe either. As of now, there has been no physical evidence or proof that string theory is actually correct; the only proof we have is the elegantly complex mathematics that works it out. The main critics of string theory today, criticize the theory on the basis that it cannot be experimentally tested or proven.

Many researchers are wondering if they are going down an infinite rabbit hole; ”String theorists propose a seemingly endless amount of mathematical constructions that have no known relationship to observation,” Sabine Hossenfelder, a physicist at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies in Germany said. But, I think that eventually, they will be able to make an experiment that proves or disproves this theory.

Here is a video that explains string theory in a simplified way:



Mann, Adam. “What Is String Theory?” LiveScience, Purch, 20 Mar. 2019, Accessed 24 May 2019.

Gilman, Larry. “String theory.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 5th ed., Gale, 2014. Science In Context, Accessed 23 May 2019.

“The Basic Elements of String Theory.” Dummies, Accessed 24 May 2019.

Information Fluency

1. What questions did you need to research in order to research your topic?

First I researched basic information just to understand string theory in a nutshell, and then I went further and researched the history, why people believe in it, and some criticisms critics have to say about it.

2. What new or familiar digital tools did you try to use as you worked through this project?

To work on this project I used the familiar tools I have at my disposal: Gale Engaged Learning Science in Context, Google, EasyBib and YouTube. I used Google to narrow down my question, Gale to find reliable sources, YouTube to find a relevant video, and EasyBib to write the bibliography.

3. What was the process you used to investigate the topic?

To investigate my project I first used Google to narrow down my question because I had no idea what string theory was. Then I used YouTube to gather some general understanding, and finally Gale to find reliable sources.

4. How did you verify and cite the information you found?

To verify the information I used, I either got it from Gale or cross-referenced the source and made sure it was stating valid information. To site it, I plugged it into a program called EasyBib.

5. How did the process of completing this challenge go? What could you have done better?

The challenge was done in a relatively short period of time, one week, so it was kind of a crunch because I had to only research the basic information. If I had more time, I would’ve researched more, particularly how some of the math works.




Data Visualization

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I chose to represent my data in a kind of collage/drawing because it really shows the information clearly. The arrows with percentage change are colour coded with cliche colours so that you instantly know which is “bad” and which is “good”. With this you can see that right away there is huge decreases in most of the categories, but you can also see which categories we need to improve on. This way of representing data is not only more pleasing to look at than the table but it is also more compact. Those are the main reasons why I chose to represent my data in this fashion.

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