The French revolution went through brutal events but managed to survive, France inspired many other countries and have become what they are currently in present day. Major events and minor events occurred in the French revolution, some resulting with deaths of thousands and some changing the life in peasants forever, but the most important out of all the events would be the introducing a the declaration of rights and man, the war declared on Austria from France and the execution of dictator, Maximillen de Robespierre.
The Declaration of the rights of man and the citizen is a document that change the stage of France forever, it removed the 3 estates which means that nobles will now be called citizen and noble privileges were also removed which means that there are rich and poor citizens. This document also carried the law to limit the power from government which meant that they don’t control everything for France but the citizens must have a say in it as well. All must be treated equally played a major role in the document, and citizens cannot be sent to jail until proven guilty which affects people who are sent to jail without any reason from the government another chance.
Louis the XVI’s wife, Marie was afraid of France going any forward into the revolution. Since Marie came from Austria she was promised help from her family and she asked for help and she decided to ask her brother for help, threats were going back and forth from France to Austria and eventually France declared war on Austria. Other countries were afraid of the path that France was going, many other countries joined Austria to stop France from the path its going.
The execution of Maximillien de Robespierre should’ve happened at the start of the reign of terror, he abused the declaration of the rights of man and adjusted the law to his ways. He played around with the law that a citizen must be proven guilty before they are executed and he made it really unfair for the people. He wrote names for who will be executed on a document for the next day but on one day he was about to announce the names for who will be executed but he didn’t bother doing so, the people that work for Robespierre thought that they were being betrayed by Robespierre. The government announce that he will be executed soon, once Robespierre got news that he will be execute he attempted to commit suicide but failed and just fractured his jaw with a misplaced shot. Robespierre was dragged to the guillotine and executed from there.
France, known for the famous document, the declaration of rights and man, the war they declared on Austria and the execution of dictator leader Maximillen Robespierre. France inspired many countries around the world and are living with freedom and equality with a slogan of “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
Quick Summary: The British were in a war against France for seven years, which was known as the seven years of war, during those 7 years losing money and soldiers were a big problem to the British, but eventually the British claimed victory but did leave them in massive debt for those soldiers who fought. This made King George think that making another Country or colony pay for their debt would be a good idea.
The stamp act was a campaign to make the Americans pay a tax before publishing a document, such as ship license, deeds, newspapers, and playing cards. The Americans didn’t like this because they wanted independence and the British won’t give it to them. Americans took this to the next level; whenever a British tax collector would come the Americans would coat their skin with warm tar and then put another coat of feathers while all this is happening they are drowning the tax collector with tea. The Americans later protested and asked to not be taxed. Britain was startled about this and took away the stamp act, but they are going to find other ways to tax the Americans.
The Townshend Act was another campaign failure of a campaign, due to that everything that is imported into the Thirteen Colonies must pay the tax that is put on them. This is including paper, lead, glass and tea. Yet again the Americans didn’t like this because a lot of the products that go to the market were imported from countries that aren’t Britain. British troops later arrived in Boston to stop the protestors.
The document for the Townshend act
During the Boston Massacre, 5 Boston protesters were killed when a British soldier fell and fired on accident, the commander tried to stop but the troops pulled the trigger and 5 people lost their lives just and 6 were injured, people have making propaganda posters on the Boston massacre, such as making the British doing the shootings were planned to make them look cruel and how they mistreat other colonies.
A bias picture of the Boston Massacre
Tea Act and Boston Tea Party
Every tax was removed against the Americans besides tea, reason being is that Britain buys their tea from the East Indian company and they have been supporting them for quite a while and its also the only company that is allowed to sell tea, its like being sponsored. One night the Americans were tired and had enough of this tea act, so members of the sons of liberty dressed up as Mohawk the reason being why they chose the Mohawks was to show a symbol that the sons of liberty identified America. In that one night, over 300 boxes of tea were thrown into the Boston harbour. This event is now known as the Boston Tea Party
The Intolerable acts was the punishment for the Boston Tea Party, Boston Harbour was closed until the East Indian Tea Company was compensated the destroyed tea that was left in the harbour. The Americans were in charge of the government but for their punishment, British have taken over the government and town meetings can only be held once a year. Followed by the quartering act which allowed British troops take over a home that is unoccupied by anyone, colonists assume that private homes were occupied as well. The last punishment for the Intolerable act is that British criminals can only have their trials held in another colony or back at Britain, this means that any witnesses can not use evidence on that certain criminal, which means that the British criminal is less likely to be put in prison.
British taking a kart
First Continental Congress
The first Continental Congress was Colonists asking for the British to take away the intolerable acts, Prince George gave then an offer if they pay for the destroyed tea in Boston he will remove the acts. The acts were removed when they decided to boycott British goods. The British approved of this decision and repelled the Intolerable acts from the Americans.
The battle of Lexington and Concord was the battle that was going to start the American Revolution, 700 British troops marched were in Lexington making their way to Concord. Militia were in the way of the British and a shot was fired no one knew who fired a shot but it was known as the “Shot heard round” this was a shot that started the battle and the Militia and British were fighting, the battle of Lexington ended with 8 militia dead and 10 wounded. After the victory in Lexington, the British marched towards Concord, where they find the heavy cannons and demolished it and resupplied on ammunition. Out of a no where the colonists opened fire on a bridge killing and injuring multiple British troops which forced them to retreat and the colonists claimed their first victory.
The battle of Bunker Hill was a battle that wasn’t all charging in, but it was a battle that used waves. The first wave the British charged up the hill, the colonists were able to push back with ease and the British had to retreat. The same happened with the second wave, British troops charged up towards the hill and many of the soldiers died and another retreat was needed. Before the next wave happened, the British knew that the colonists were low on ammunition. The final charge was made, some colonists were either killed and made a retreat. The British claimed victory on Bunker Hill but with a cost of 1054 dead soldiers.
Thomas Paine wrote a book talking about the logic behind Britain trying to rule over the thirteen colonies. He pointed out that Britain shouldn’t even bother putting the thirteen colonies in this kind of situation, and that they didn’t even help them with the 7 years of war with France and why should they be involved with the taxes? Also that the Britain didn’t even ask the thirteen colonies if they can assist them, Thomas Paine knew if the thirteen colonies were never involved with anything before, why should they be involved with their problems now? Sure they are being taxed without consent but can’t that just be down in Britain? It would take some time but at least you are taxing your own country with consent.
The declaration of independence is long overdue. 5 loyal colonists were selected, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson and 2 others. This document must be carefully worded and be logical if they want to declare Independence. This document must be very persuasive if they want Independence. A document this powerful must be written with a powerful and a logical understanding so the five agreed that the most talented writer out of the five was Thomas Jefferson. This document will show royal restraint, foreign forces to aid the militia and it would influence others to join the patriots.
The Americans were heavily losing the war against the British at this point. So one of their most trust generals had a plan, general Washington had a plan that seems strange but it would make a big difference. The colonist would attack the Germans known as the Hessians that were working for the British, on Christmas. General Washington knew that they would be drunk and dancing, this plan was an element of surprise, when the Americans arrived at Trenton they released barrages against the Germans, many of them were wounded or had been killed this gave the colonists pride and a big boost in morale. They were also able to resupply on ammunition and got new weaponry.
Hessians attacking the colonists
Battle of Saratoga
The battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the north for the Americans, the British had plans to separate New England from the rest of the colonies by taking over New York. General St. Leger, Burgoyne, and Howe plan to meet by the Albany to defeat the militia. On the way there Burgoyne’s army were blocked by the American general Gates. Burgoyne’s army was ambushed and defeated by Arnold’s army by the Bemis Heights. The British were low on supplies and Burgoyne’s army had to surrender. The pride in the Americans grew more and this victory convinced France to assist the Americans. They also supplied the Americans with troops, ships, supplies and money for the rest of the war between Britain
Battle of Saratoga map
Battle of Camden
The continental congress voted the hero of the battle of Saratoga General Gates. To take battle in Camden. Gate’s four thousand soldiers had to march all the way to South Carolina, half of his group died to exhaustion, ravaged, or killed by a disease. Some soldiers out of those four thousand had zero military experience. British general Cornwallis was warned that general Gates marched two thousand troops to Camden. The 2 Generals eventually met face to face with their army. British troops made a right flank towards the Americans and charged with their bayonets, on the other hand the Americans didn’t have any bayonets and had to make a retreat on their side. This battle ended with over 900 Patriot troops dead or wounded which was a big win to the British. The defeat in the south shocked Gates and he was replaced by General Green to finish the battle in the south.
British slaughtering colonists
Battle of the Cowpens
The battle of Cowpens was taking place in the south with the militia and the American army. General Morgan was leading 900 militia and regulars to defend the coast from the British. On the British side was lieutenant colonel Banastre who slaughtered a mass group of surrendering Americans and was giving the name “Butcher” with 1000 British red coats was about to face Morgan in a battle. Morgan sent his group of sharp shooters to the front and they were facing the Banastre’s men. The first line of the British troops were wounded and Morgan’s group made a quick retreat which made the British charge in with their bayonets. The British charged in and ended up facing the whole army that General Morgan was leading, less than an hour 100 Redcoats were killed, 300 were wounded and the rest ended up as prisoners. This was known as the turning point in the south, a great victory for the Americans.
The battle of Guilford Courthouse almost ended in a stalemate due to the act of British General Cornwallis. General Greene had heard about the battle of Cowpens and have decided to use the tactic that Daniel Morgan used, but putting his troops into 3 separate waves that were to far to support each other. Around 1:30 in the afternoon, Cornwallis charged straight into the first and second wave and taking out the American’s with ease. The third wave was up in a hill which the British had troubles reaching, so Cornwallis decided to fire his heavy weaponry over his British troops that are currently charging up the hill and slaughtered his own men and was able to take the hill. This battle didn’t end with a big loss for the Americans but it also ended for a big loss of the British as well. Greene quickly had his men retreat to Yorktown to rendezvous with the French for the Battle of Yorktown.
Americans being pushed back
Battle of Yorktown
General Washington and Rochambeau were tired and are in need of a victory to end the war. General Cornwallis had formed a base in Yorktown with several thousand of his men with him. General Washington and Rochambeau hoped to arrive to Yorktown with thousands of American soldiers and 12 naval ships. In September Washington and Rochambeau Were on time and opened a mass barrage against Cornwallis. The very first cannon was fired which then 12 ships fired their cannons towards Yorktown. The British were trapped and had nowhere to go. Cornwallis admitted defeat and surrendered, he sent out his second in command and offered Washington his sword, Washington refused the sword and sent his second in command to Cornwallis. Cornwallis was embarrassed to surrender to the Americans, he even said that he would never do such an act.
Battle of Yorktown map
The surrender of Cornwallis to Washington
Treaty of Paris
Britain agreed to recognize American independence. They gave Americans fishing rights to the Grand Banks off the coast of Newfoundland Britain granted U.S. all territory between Allegheny Mountains on the east and Mississippi River on the west.
approximately 20% American colonists supported British rule and remained loyal. Loyalists were persecuted by the Patriots during the war. Patriots abused them and burned their homes and farms after the revolution and Treaty of Paris was signed, between 80,000-100,000 Loyalists had to leave U.S. many settled in other British colonies in North America – Quebec, Nova Scotia and Island of St. John (PEI).
It outlines the structure and powers of government three branches of government are separate, checked and balanced off by the power of the other two U S Constitution is supreme all persons are equal before the law people can change the constitution.
The document that is written of the Constitution
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments (additions) of the constitution represent ideals regarding individual liberty, limited government, and the rule of law.
American Revolution spread ideas of liberty, individual rights and equality to other parts of the world it influenced and inspired other revolutions around the world such as France in 1789. American Declaration of Independence had some impact on the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen of 1789
The cause that I think was the most important is that when Charles invaded the House of Commons and later dissolved it from its works, and there are many what ifs if he didn’t shut down the House of Commons and maybe if it was still up civil war might not have happened. But since it was King Charles, he thought England was his play ground, he thought he can do anything he wanted to do and he wanted it fair. He invaded the House of Commons because he needed to arrest five puritans that were protesting against his ruling. The five puritans were warned before he invaded and escaped when they had the chance to. Charles didn’t was frustrated that he didn’t get his arrests and at this point he thought if he couldn’t get his hands these five puritans then know one can be in the House of Commons anymore so he decided to close down the House of Commons, which is as bad as if there wasn’t a jury on trial, making or deciding decisions would be extremely difficult if you are the only one making up the decisions.
A member of Parliament kneeling to Charles during the Purge
The first component is the Battle of Naseby, where Charles’s army was outnumbered by a thousand and Charles’s confidence wasn’t drawn down by anything, he thinks he is unstoppable because he is a “god” but all this battle was going end in Cromwell’s favour and not Charles’s. After 3 hours fighting, Charles lost the battle and retreated back to England. After the battle, Charles lost a BIG portion of his army leaving him to surrender to become over confident and fight until his last breath.
The second component is where Charles surrenders to Cromwell, I think this plays a big part if it was a “what if” situation, because I thought he would over confident and fight back because he assumes he has all of this “power” that him and his left over army can fight off the rest of the Cromwell’s army. But I suppose he did make a good choice if he doesn’t want to die, yet.
And the last component is Charles escaping and making a deal with the scots so they can fight on his side. I think by now Charles is power hungry, he is desperate to have England to himself again. Cromwell was notified about this and were about to have the last war, the war that will end the civil war between Charles and the parliament. Charles again lost to parliament and was captured. Only if he was cooperative with parliament and their ideas to end the war and still letting him be king only with less power.
In my eyes I think the most big game changer consequence was when the parliament was purged and was separated from the people who are loyal towards the parliament and not to the king. Because if this even never happened and the 500 members of the parliament would’ve let Charles live and the execution would’ve never happened because people knew that if this king is sent to prison or is executed, then the son would have to take over but his son Charles is in France, He is unable to become king when he is far from his home country. But when this does lead up to Charles’s trial, the events and choices would be a lot different if it were the Rump Parliament. Charles could be spared but instead have limited power and still have England as a Monarch. But at this point the Rump Parliament was either desperate or didn’t think straight, they really wanted to get rid of this King so they can live a proper life instead of having a king and living in anarchy. But decisions were hard to make back then when you are dealing with a king that caused so many problems to England. And the other problem was to how to keep the government the same without making any changes to it.
The Republic and the Monarch
Honestly, Cromwell might be the most hypocritical leader when he decides to do this, Oliver made the most immature move when he closed parliament by force because they took too long when choosing who or how England should be ruled. Cromwell could’ve thought that if he took down parliament he would be put in charge of England, and he would be called king. But he was un denial to be called king although he ruled very close to one. If parliament was still up, they could have just made Cromwell a general or a war leader. And the military would have to agree with that because its parliament. His ideas weren’t meant to exist, none his ideas should be allowed only to defend England. Cromwell actually experience parliament closing down 3 or 4 times when Charles was still king, and he was not pleased with what Charles did, but yet, He made the mistake himself.
The only effective thing that Cromwell has done was prevented the civil war. He knows the sights of war he knows people would die and families would break apart. This has probably be the only idea where Cromwell sat down and thought about it, unlike his other decisions. But Cromwell had to give up his only moment with England being a republic. It was either England becomes part of Scotland or England remains as is but with a King once again. Since Cromwell was those leaders that are very attached to their country and Religion, he had to disband the republic just to keep England Puritan friendly and its own contry.
This has possibly be the biggest change to England for decades; Charles II learned from his father and limited his power with parliament once it was reopened. Power plays a big role when it comes to Monarch countries. Charles cares about his people and didn’t want to cause chaos to the people of England. I first thought that Charles II was going to be a king that changed all of England once he did this because parliament is similar to a king but the power is split between the House of Commons and the House of Lords. And even better that there was no more “Rump Parliament” the members of parliament was later put back to their spots, unfortunately most of them died. New members were later recruited and decisions and ideas didn’t have to rely all on the king anymore.
The Grand Resomstrance
James putting Catholic in Parliament without a test act is terrible; it’s like when sports have their own fans. Those fans will cheer for those team that they admire, except they are cheering for a king and have power to control what to do. There can be many crimes that James commits and the Catholics will be on his side no matter what the cost is. And in the past decades, kings and war leaders have been ruling England in ways that aren’t even imaginable, England has been living through Anarchy through those years and there has to be a point where all of it has to stop. Yet there is this vicious pattern with these leaders in England, it’s either the leader takes advantage of power or they are very ignorant and shortsighted. And here we have James thinking its all a game putting his “fans” in a powerful place.
Bill of rights must be the best end to the English Revolution as a long result of most countries has relied on government and not the president or king/queen. This is almost the same as modern day, the queen of England doesn’t have too much power but its shared with the government which gives people more freedom. So therefore the bill of rights allows people to make choices when needed, such as voting. This event has probably lasted for years or even centuries due to its success and if James would’ve never left his place we would probably be living in a monarch. Yet the government have finally made its move for over years and decided they didn’t want to have a king to make everybody live as if he wanted you to be living.
The Bill of Rights being presented to Mary and William