Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering 


What is Genetic Engineering? 

Genetic Engineering, also known as genetic modification, is the process of altering DNA in an organism’s genome. This includes altering a pair of bases, deleting a region of DNA, or adding an additional copy of a gene. It can also refer to extracting DNA from another organism and combining it with the DNA of the organism that extracted it. It is used to enhance or modify the DNA of an individual. Genetic engineering can be used to modify anything, being a human, or even a virusFor example, you can genetically modify a plant to have higher nutritional values and be more tolerant to herbicides. 



How does Genetic Engineering work? 

Genetic Engineering works by physically removing a gene from an organism and giving it to another. This gives it the ability to show the trait coded in the gene. Genetic engineering uses a step-by-step process to give the genes to the organisms. First, a small piece of DNA is extracted from the organism and copies it. The desired gene must be located and is then copied thousands of times. This is gene cloning. The gene can be modified slightly once in the organism. The new copied gene, called the transgene, gets delivered into the cells of the receiver organism. This is called transformation. From here, a few different techniques can be used by the cells and transgene. A few techniques consist of the gene gun and when a bacterium naturally genetically engineers’ plants with its own DNA. After either technique, it takes the cells and transgene hundreds of times to do this just to produce a few transgenic organisms. Once a transgenic organism has been made, traditional breeding is used to improve the characteristics of the final product. This also means that genetic engineering does not get rid of the use of traditional breeding. It is just way to add new traits. 



The Genetic Engineering Process. 

First a small piece of DNA called a plasmid is extracted from a bacteria or yeast cell. A small section of the plasmid is then cut off with molecular scissors. The gene for human insulin is inserted into the plasmid, and the plasmid is now genetically modified, the modified plasmid is then put into a new bacteria or yeast cell. The cell begins to divide rapidly creating insulin. The genetically modified bacteria or yeast is then grown in large fermentation vessels, that contain nutrients they need, the cells begin to divide. When fermentation is complete, the mixture is released, which releases the insulin. The insulin is then purified and placed into bottles and insulin pens to be given to patients with diabetes 



What else is Genetic Engineering used for? 

Genetic engineering has been applied the resilience, nutritional value and growth rate on plants and crops. In animals, genetic engineering has used to develop a sheep that produces a therapeutic protein in their milk that can be used to treat cystic fibrosis, a disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and digestive system. This milk also can make worms glow in the dark, both can allow scientists to study and learn more about Alzheimer’s.  



How is Genetic Engineering best used? 

Genetic Engineering is used for medicine, and research and can be used on a wide range of plants and animals. In Medicine it is used to create a large amount of insulin, growth hormones, vaccines, and more. When being used for research, it can be used to alter different genes to discover the purpose of these genes.  






How is Genetic Engineering changing the future? 

Genetic engineering was developed to help stop diseases spreading. With the coming of genetic engineering, scientists can change the way genomes are made to destrocertain diseases that happen as a result of genetic mutation. This can impact the growing spread of diseases in the future. 




Greatest Advancements using Genetic Engineering 

Bananas: Bananas are a very important source of calories in many countries around the world. Bananas are genetically modified with a certain gene from a pepper so that they don’t pick up different types of diseases. 

Onions that don’t make you cry: in 2008 it was discovered that If you insert a certain gene it down regulates the enzyme in an onion that causes your eyes to tear up. 

Purple Tomatoes: In 2008 it was discovered that if you put a gene from a purple decorative plant into a tomato then the tomato will turn a purple colour, it was later discovered that it can prevent mice from getting cancer.



What to do Now?

I think people should just stop doing hand gestures to each other as a greeting until further notice from the government. I think this because it is still unclear on how easily the virus spreads, it would be a safe bet on not to touch others. But, If people were to greet each other with some sort of hand gesture, people should greet each other by not touching each others hands. For now, people should not shake each others hands, but when this pandemic has come to an end, people will probably go back to their old ways.

The Importance of Why

No light bulb(s) in staircase



Why doesn’t it work well?

Can be dangerous

Why is it dangerous?

Because you cannot see where you are going

Why can you not see where you are going?

Because there is no light bulb slot to put a light bulb anywhere in the ceiling.

Why is there no light bulb slot in the ceiling?

Because it was poorly designed


Why is it poorly designed?

The workers did not think to have lightbulbs in the staircase

Importance of Fasteners

Wood Screws: Screws used for wood and other soft materials.

Machine Screws: Used for the assembly of metal parts.

Self Cutting Machine Screws: Machine Screws with a thread cutting, self tapping point.

Sheet Metal Screws: Designed to be directly driven into sheetmetal. Can also be used on plastic, fiber glass, or wood.

Self Driving Sheet Metal Screws: Just Sheet Metal Screws with a self drilling point.

Hex Bolt: Used with a nut or a tap pole.

Carriage Bolts: Has a spur section which pulls in the material to prevent spinning during installation. Used to fasten wood parts.

Lag Bolts: A heavy duty screw that are used to connect heavy lumber or other heavy materials.

Socket Screws: Are Machine Screws with an internal hex socket.

Set Screws: Used to hold a nub colour, pulley or gear.

Eye Bolt: Used for attaching a rope or a chain.

Eye Lag: Uses wood thread instead of machine thread.

J Bolts: Used for tie downs.

U Bolts: Attaching pipes and other round surfaces.

Shoulder Bolts: To create a pivot point.

Elevator Bolts: Used in conveyer systems.

Sex Bolts: Used for through bolting applications, where a head is desired on both sides of the joint.

Mating Screws: Has a shoulder that matches the diameter of the sex bolt.

Rube Goldberg Reflection

  1. Things that went well

The machine worked, but because of the last minute adjustments, but because of our mistakes and misplacements, the machine did not work 2/3 of the time.

  1. Problems that occurred during the process

The lever was not even and centered to the large ramp 2/3 of the time, 1/3 the ball went off course because of this, and the other time the ramp was slightly off centered, but the ball made its way to the multiple small ramps, but, because it was slightly off centered, the ball could not put out then flame.

  1. Things that you’d do different next time

Glue all of the buildings together.

  1. Testing results

It worked 1/3 of the time.