Rube Goldberg Project

First, the ball will roll down A, then bounce on the edge of B because of the momentum and bounce perfectly on to the power switch of B turning off the computer because the ball is attached to a elastic string.

The purpose of this device is meant to turn off a computer.


In this video, the ball is being pulled up from a book because of the elastic string it is attached to, gaining potential energy, then falling onto the power switch of the computer with the pull of the gravity and the mechanical energy, turning off the computer.

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering 


What is Genetic Engineering? 

Genetic Engineering, also known as genetic modification, is the process of altering DNA in an organism’s genome. This includes altering a pair of bases, deleting a region of DNA, or adding an additional copy of a gene. It can also refer to extracting DNA from another organism and combining it with the DNA of the organism that extracted it. It is used to enhance or modify the DNA of an individual. Genetic engineering can be used to modify anything, being a human, or even a virusFor example, you can genetically modify a plant to have higher nutritional values and be more tolerant to herbicides. 



How does Genetic Engineering work? 

Genetic Engineering works by physically removing a gene from an organism and giving it to another. This gives it the ability to show the trait coded in the gene. Genetic engineering uses a step-by-step process to give the genes to the organisms. First, a small piece of DNA is extracted from the organism and copies it. The desired gene must be located and is then copied thousands of times. This is gene cloning. The gene can be modified slightly once in the organism. The new copied gene, called the transgene, gets delivered into the cells of the receiver organism. This is called transformation. From here, a few different techniques can be used by the cells and transgene. A few techniques consist of the gene gun and when a bacterium naturally genetically engineers’ plants with its own DNA. After either technique, it takes the cells and transgene hundreds of times to do this just to produce a few transgenic organisms. Once a transgenic organism has been made, traditional breeding is used to improve the characteristics of the final product. This also means that genetic engineering does not get rid of the use of traditional breeding. It is just way to add new traits. 



The Genetic Engineering Process. 

First a small piece of DNA called a plasmid is extracted from a bacteria or yeast cell. A small section of the plasmid is then cut off with molecular scissors. The gene for human insulin is inserted into the plasmid, and the plasmid is now genetically modified, the modified plasmid is then put into a new bacteria or yeast cell. The cell begins to divide rapidly creating insulin. The genetically modified bacteria or yeast is then grown in large fermentation vessels, that contain nutrients they need, the cells begin to divide. When fermentation is complete, the mixture is released, which releases the insulin. The insulin is then purified and placed into bottles and insulin pens to be given to patients with diabetes 



What else is Genetic Engineering used for? 

Genetic engineering has been applied the resilience, nutritional value and growth rate on plants and crops. In animals, genetic engineering has used to develop a sheep that produces a therapeutic protein in their milk that can be used to treat cystic fibrosis, a disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and digestive system. This milk also can make worms glow in the dark, both can allow scientists to study and learn more about Alzheimer’s.  



How is Genetic Engineering best used? 

Genetic Engineering is used for medicine, and research and can be used on a wide range of plants and animals. In Medicine it is used to create a large amount of insulin, growth hormones, vaccines, and more. When being used for research, it can be used to alter different genes to discover the purpose of these genes.  






How is Genetic Engineering changing the future? 

Genetic engineering was developed to help stop diseases spreading. With the coming of genetic engineering, scientists can change the way genomes are made to destrocertain diseases that happen as a result of genetic mutation. This can impact the growing spread of diseases in the future. 




Greatest Advancements using Genetic Engineering 

Bananas: Bananas are a very important source of calories in many countries around the world. Bananas are genetically modified with a certain gene from a pepper so that they don’t pick up different types of diseases. 

Onions that don’t make you cry: in 2008 it was discovered that If you insert a certain gene it down regulates the enzyme in an onion that causes your eyes to tear up. 

Purple Tomatoes: In 2008 it was discovered that if you put a gene from a purple decorative plant into a tomato then the tomato will turn a purple colour, it was later discovered that it can prevent mice from getting cancer.



What I learned in Grade 9 Linear Relations

What is a Linear Relation

A linear relation is a pattern that increases or decreases by the same amount every time.

Linear Patterns Pack

What is a T-Chart and How to fill it

When finding the rule for a linear relation, you can put the numbers in a t-chart. A t-chart helps you record your data in one table. This chart helps you find the relationship between x and y. On the left side of the chart is x, and the right is y.

Praxis Core Math: Linear Equation Practice Questions

How to find the Rule for a Pattern

The first step is to know how much the pattern changes each time. Once you know how much your pattern goes up/down by you put the number next to x. Next you insert 1 instead of x as it is the first number in the pattern. Example: 6(1)=y. You know that 6(1) does not equal 3. The next step is to find how you get from 6to 3. To get from 6 to 3 you subtract 3. Now add -3 to your rule. Your rule now looks like 6x-3=y. To see if this is correct, try it on the next number.

Graph equations with Step-by-Step Math Problem Solver

How to Plot a Point

On a graph, the horizontal line is the x axis and the vertical line is the y axis. The first number on your coordinates is the x number and the second number is the y. Example: 2,3 the 2 is x and 3 is y. The first number tells you which way you are going to go on the x axis. If the number is positive you go to the right and if the number is negative you go to the left. The second number tells you which way you are going on the y axis. If the number is positive you are going up the y axis and if the number is negative you are going down the y axis. If are coordinate is 2,3 you will go right 2 times, and then up 3 times. Once you have done this, you place your point where the coordinates lead.

How to Graph a Linear Relation

To graph a linear relation, put your equation into a t-chart. Once you have a couple pairs of numbers you can insert the points onto the graph. Example, the rule 6x-3=y, the first three numbers are 3,9,15. Now your t-chart has 1,2,3 in the x column, and 3,9,15 in the y column. When you put the two together you get your coordinates. For example, 1,3  2,69 3,15. Once you have these coordinates you can plot them on the graph.

How to Graph Vertical and Horizontal Lines

A vertical line goes across the x axis. This means that the formula you are going to use x = a number. For example x=3. A horizontal line goes across the y axis. This means that the formula you are going to use is y = a number. For example y=-3. This will create a horizontal line to the right and left of -23 on the y axis.


X Axis – The horizontal line on a graph.

Y Axis – The vertical line on a graph.

T-Chart – A chart that has two columns.

Quadrant – A graph that is split in 4 parts.

Origin- The middle of the graph.

Plotting – Where you place your point on a graph.

Linear Pattern – A pattern that increases or decreases by the same amount each time.

Increasing Pattern – A pattern that increases each time.

Decreasing Pattern – A pattern that decreases each time.

Horizontal Line – A line that runs from left to right.

Vertical Line – A line that runs top to bottom.


Something Else I learned

Something else that I learned in this unit is restricting your line to between two points. This is useful because without the formula, you will have a long line running from one side of the graph to the other.


What to do Now?

I think people should just stop doing hand gestures to each other as a greeting until further notice from the government. I think this because it is still unclear on how easily the virus spreads, it would be a safe bet on not to touch others. But, If people were to greet each other with some sort of hand gesture, people should greet each other by not touching each others hands. For now, people should not shake each others hands, but when this pandemic has come to an end, people will probably go back to their old ways.

The Importance of Why

No light bulb(s) in staircase



Why doesn’t it work well?

Can be dangerous

Why is it dangerous?

Because you cannot see where you are going

Why can you not see where you are going?

Because there is no light bulb slot to put a light bulb anywhere in the ceiling.

Why is there no light bulb slot in the ceiling?

Because it was poorly designed


Why is it poorly designed?

The workers did not think to have lightbulbs in the staircase