DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Nucleotides consist of a nitrogen base (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine) a 5-carbon sugar and a phosphate group. The complementary base pairings are bonded by hydrogen bonds. The two types of nitrogenous bases are purines (single ring – shown with one bead) and pyrimidines (double ring – shown with two beads) match up with each other. Adenine and guanine are purines and thymine and cytosine are pyrimidines. The pairings are adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine. The order of the nitrogenous bases determines the DNA’s instructions or genetic code. The strands of DNA are antiparallel, the opposite orientation of the sugar molecule. This allows the bases to pair, hydrogen bond and be more structurally stable.
*Note: The strands are not antiparallel in the photo as there are phosphates on all ends of the backbone, but there should only be one on each strand on opposing sides.
The model shows the basic structure of DNA including the nitrogenous base pairings, antiparallel strands and nucleotides. It also gives a visual representation of the phosphate group, but does not clearly show the sugar group. In DNA, the deoxyribose sugar and phosphate are more “branched/connected” instead of being “ontop.” The hydrogen bonds could have been made more clear than hooking the white pipe cleaners together, like adding a different colour bead to show where the bond forms. Adenine and thymine only have 2 hydrogen bonds whereas guanine and cytosine have 3. Using beads to show the hydrogen bonds could also indicate the number of bonds by using the specific number.
*Note: Adenine=yellow (double), Thymine=blue, Guanine=purple (double), Cytosine=green
-We mixed up the pairings, we had A-G and T-C, should be A-T and G-C
Below is my infographic on the novel, “Fahrenheit 451,” written by Ray Bradbury. The infographic highlights the book’s main themes and topics as well as details of the story.
Genre is the category a piece of literature or art fits into based on the characteristics. Characteristics could be the style, form or subject matter of the content. Fiction and non-fiction stories can fall into one of the five main genres. The novel, “Fahrenheit 451,” written by Ray Bradbury was inspired by a dystopian world he saw society changing into in the future. The story fits into the genre of fiction as it portrays a real world however, the story does not contain true events. A subgenre is a subcategory within a particular genre. “Fahrenheit 451,” fits into the subgenre of science fiction as it deals with futuristic concepts and a transformed society. The novel can be applied to science fiction because the story was set in a dystopian world where war was continually fought, and fires constantly burned houses and books. Advanced technology was a main part of the novel as it showed how far society could be developed. People were very reliant on technology and lived their days oblivious to issues around their world and in their community. For example, the parlour walls consume Mildred’s days and mind as she thought as the characters as family, caring about them more than her husband, Montag. Society was easily manipulated in the novel which showed how Bradbury saw technology and systems holding more power in the future. Propaganda and constant advertisement were relentless and eliminated people to form personal thoughts and opinions. “Fahrenheit 451,” addressed the many issues, such as banned and censored books. The story showed why society should be careful about which books and content are banned.
2014–2015: Fahrenheit 451
Today, censorship is used in many countries around the world. Censorship is when access to specific material is controlled for a group of people. Certain items may be censored because they are not appropriate for a community. They may involve profanity, racism, nudity, offensive wording, substance abuse and suggestive actions. Books may be challenged or banned if some people believe it is not suitable for the public. A challenged book would mean someone points out the reasons why it should be censored, but would not be successful in restricting access. A banned book means someone challenged it was effective in banning the book. Books may be banned for a certain group of people such as students or from society all together. “Animal Farm,” written by George Orwell was a short allegorical novel. Written during WWII, it was about a group of farm animals that rebelled against their farmer. They hoped to create a safe and happy place where the animals could be equal. This book was banned because it promoted ideologies such as Communism and was critical of the USSR. Some argued it denied constitutional rights and had indecent pictures of animals which were not appropriate. It was also banned because it included parts that contradicted religious beliefs. “Animal Farm,” was offensive to many groups of people and for that reason, the novel was banned from several schools and countries. “Fahrenheit 451,” written by Ray Bradbury was also a banned book for many reasons. The book was inspired by Bradbury’s growing fear of technology’s influence on society. It could be banned or challenged because it paints a picture of a dystopian world where free thought is discouraged, and people lack the ability of human interaction. In the novel, books were illegal and having possession was a punishable crime. If books were found, they would be burned by firemen. The book has sensitive subjects and draws very close parallels to the world today. People may worry about the public having access to the novel because many heavily rely on technology and does not want others to think the future may be similar to the book’s world. Censorship is a significant tool to control what a younger audience can see however, it is important that adults have access to books so they are able to form their own views and opinions.
‘Assault’ on residential school students’ identities began the moment they stepped inside
In this photo, you can see the difference between the boy before and after he was forced into the residential school system. The objective of the school was to assimilate the First Nations youth to the “ideal” image of Caucasian culture. They convinced them their culture and was wrong and went to extreme proportions to erase any trace of their previous beliefs.
The visuals for this activity were created by Eva and Jamie from Mr. Ford’s ICT 11 and 12 classes
“The kitchen at center seems actual enough, for there is a kitchen table with three chairs, and a refrigerator. But no other fixtures are seen” (Miller, 11).
“At the back of the kitchen there is a draped entrance, which leads to the living room” (Miller 11).
“To the right of the kitchen, on a level raised two feet, is a bedroom furnished only with a brass bedstead and a straight chair” (Miller 11).
“Behind the kitchen, on a level raised six and a half feet, is the boys’ bedroom, at present barely visible. Two beds are dimly seen, and at the back of the room a dormer window. (This bedroom is above the unseen living room.) At the left a stairway curves up to it from the kitchen” (Miller 11).
“The entire setting is wholly, or, in some places, partially transparent. The roof-line of the house is one-dimensional…Before the house lies an apron, curving beyond the forestage into the orchestra” (Miller 11).
“Biff gets out of bed, comes downstage a bit, and stands attentively” (Miller 19).
“The gas heater begins to glow through the kitchen wall, near the stairs, a blue flame beneath red coils” (Miller 68).
“Funny, Biff, y’know? Us sleeping in here again? The old beds. (He pats his bed affectionately.) All the talk that went across those two beds, huh? Our whole lives” (Miller 20).
“Remember those two beautiful elm trees out there? When I and Biff hung the swing between them?” (Miller 17).
“[Willy] unlocks the door, comes into the kitchen…He closes the door, then carries his cases out into the living-room, through the draped kitchen doorway” (Miller 12).
Brooklyn (Appearance Fact #1)
-The style of interior design was based on bright colours and fun patterns as the USA had a positive outlook on the future and post-war recovery. Emphasis on comfort and leisure as families were moving into the suburbs. It was a prosperous time for middle class families, big backyards and cozy homes grabbed the attention of young families.
Brooklyn (Appearance Fact #2)
-Brooklyn had helped to supply the industrial needs of the country, but by the 1950s, Brooklyn’s industrial energies began to diminish. Heavy manufacturers began to move to cheaper locations in other cities, and the ports became less active as large container ships, requiring deep harbours, began to dominate the shipping trade.
Brooklyn (Appearance Fact #3)
-The streets were crowded as there were lots of people joyfully roaming around. It was a time of hope and change. People were settling into their everyday lives as they adjusted after they returned home from the war.
Brooklyn (Appearance Fact #4)
-Brooklyn was diverse, with a ton of Italian, Jewish, and Irish immigrants and the second generation of earlier immigration waves. The population hit a high of 2.7 million. Immigrants were living the American dream.
Brooklyn (Appearance Fact #5)
-The Brooklyn Eagle was a newspaper found in Brooklyn, created in 1841 by the original name, The Brooklyn Eagle, and Kings County Democrat. This paper helped bring attention to Brooklyn as the paper was only distributed within Brooklyn. The paper was assisted by the National baseball league team, the Dodgers; both major institutions were lost in the 1950s: the paper closed in 1955 after unsuccessful attempts at a sale following a reporters’ strike, and the baseball team decamped for Los Angeles in a realignment of major league baseball in 1957.
WHERE AM I?