New France Document Gallery

Champlain and Quebec

A drawing of the habitation at Quebec 1608-1609.

Crossroads pg 21

Fur traders trading with Native Americans

1609 raid against Iroquois

Crossroads pg 22

Champlain making the alliance with the Wendat/Huron

 Jesuits and Huron

Jesuit priest preaching to the Huron

Mission among the Hurons in the start of a church

Iroquois attack on the Huron

Royal Government

Governor Frontenac

Filles du roi-“King’s Daughters”

Mercantilism-promoted governmental regulation of a nation’s economy

Coureurs de bois

Coureurs de bois trading with Native people

Radisson and Des Groseilliers being led by the Ojibwa and Algonquins to Hudson’s Bay


A habitant family in their house doing every day activities Crossroads pg 34

All seigneuries had a church nearby in New France

The women of the seigneuries

Crossroads pg 35

Imperialism and Conflict- France vs England

Wars between France and England over imperialism

Louisbourg was the French place of protection over New France

Halifax was British land used to take over Quebec

The Acadians being deported off their land by the British because they didn’t pledge to the oath

A map of Acadia

Seven Years War/French and Indian War 1756- 1763

British take over Louisbourg

A battle during the Seven Years’ War

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was the turning point in the Seven Years’ War

Crossroads pg 65

General James Wolfe dies as a consequence of the Seven Years’ War and is shown as a hero in this painting Crossroads pg 69

The Royal Proclamation of 1763

Crossroads pg 63

American Revolution Web Page


Stamp Act March 22 1765

Stamp Tax

The Stamp Act was a tax that took the form of a stamp that had to be purchased then stuck on items that were bought and sold. Americans had no representatives in the British parliament so they felt they were being taxed without their consent, “taxation without representation”. This tax was necessary to pay the cost of the British soldiers defending the colonies but American colonists refused to pay it. When officials came around to enforce the tax, Americans would pour tar and dump feathers on them to cause pain and humiliate them. This tax was soon abolished.

Townshend Acts June 1767

Man looking at a poster of the tax on tea.

The Townshend Acts were taxes placed on goods such as, paper, paint, glass, and tea. These taxes were required to pay the cost of operating governments in the colonies. The taxes were repealed except for the one on tea.

Boston Massacre March 5 1770

A drawing by Paul Revere of his perspective of the Boston Massacre.

The Boston Massacre was an event that everyone had different views on. The drawing above by Paul Revere (an American) is a source of anti-British propaganda that many people use to imagine how this event would happen. However, this is in fact not how it occurred. On March 5 1770, a crowd of Americans were taunting and throwing snowballs at a group of American soldiers. This caused one of the soldiers to accidentally fire his weapon creating a line of fire from the others. Meanwhile, the leader of the soldiers is yelling at them to stop. Paul Revere’s drawing makes it look as though the leader of the British soldiers is commanding them to all fire at a cornered, scrambling crowd of Americans that look innocent. He calls this event a massacre. The definition of massacre is a brutal killing of a large amount of people. In the event a total of 5 people were killed so it is not a massacre.

Tea Act and Boston Tea Party December 16 1773

Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea Party was an act of defiance towards the British. After British parliament monopolized the countries tea brand, 116 colonists dressed in disguises, boarded British ships docked in Boston. They then threw boxes of tea into the harbour to protest the Tea act. They had destroyed the tea and disobeyed the law as this act was very much illegal.

Intolerable Acts  April 22 1774

Document from the Quebec Act.

Parliament passes a series of acts that were meant to punish American colonists and assert British authority. Many Americans viewed these acts as a threat to their freedoms. Every position in the colony’s government are now taken by the British. Town meetings are now only held once a year. British officials accused of crimes can have their trials in another colony or in Great Britain. Boundaries of the colony of Quebec were expanded deep into the Ohio Valley, which prevented the Americans from settling there.

First Continental Congress September 5-October 26 1774

The First Continental Congress

All thirteen colonies except Georgia sent delegates to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. It began by defying British authority and government. Leaders demanded a boycott of goods from England. British General Gage readied British troops from his headquarters in Boston. Disobedient colonists began to train and to store weapons and ammunition. King George declined the colonists’ petition that demanded the Intolerable Acts be abolished.


Battle of Lexington and Concord April 19 1775

Battle of Lexington and Concord.

Map of victories and movements.

General Gage sent 700 troops under Colonel Francis to Concord to seize and destroy artillery and ammunition. The colonists already knew their weapons were in jeopardy and had moved them to secret locations in advance to the arrival of the Redcoats. Dawes road to Concord to warn Hancock and Adams and Revere rode through the countryside yelling “The Regulars are coming”. Gage’s wife, Margaret Kemble Gage, gave information about her husband’s planned raid in sympathy to the Revolution. When the British arrived, someone fired a shot that was known as “The Shot Heard Round’ the World”. The Redcoats unleashed devastating volleys before charging the minutemen with their bayonets. Eight minutemen were killed and ten wounded but their numbers arriving swelled. In revenge for one of theirs dead, the Redcoats sometimes pillaged houses and communities along the way. Colonials continued to snipe away the line of Redcoats. In conclusion, 73 Redcoats were killed and 174 were wounded.

Battle of Bunker Hill June 17 1775

Battle of Bunker Hill.

Map of the Battle of Bunker Hill.

On the night of June 17 1775, American troops under orders from Artemas Ward, moved out of their camp to Bunker Hill. Ward’s men misunderstood his orders and went to Breed’s Hill by mistake. In the first wave of attack, scores of British troops were killed or wounded and the rest retreated down the hill. British rushed the hill in a second wave and again they retreated, suffering a great number of casualties. When the British charged the hill for the third time, the Americans were low on ammunition and hand-to-hand fighting took place. The British eventually took the hill, but at a great cost. Of the 2,300 British soldiers, 1,054 were either killed or wounded.

Thomas Paine’s Common Sense February 14 1776

Thomas Paine’s Common Sense.

The Americans separating from the British would not be a walk in the park. Although they did want to break apart, Americans were taught at a young age that England was to be loved and the British respected. Thomas Paine wrote a piece called Common Sense that was instantaneously a best-seller. Published in early 1776, he had two main points in his work. 1.Independence from England and 2.the creation of a democratic republic. He quoted the bible often in this and wrote in the language of the people. It made no difference to the people that Thomas Paine was new to America as it was published anonymously. Many people thought that John Adams wrote it, but he denied involvement. Thomas Paine’s piece was very beneficial to the American Revolution and it spoke to the people.

Declaration of Independence July 4 1776

Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson.

The Declaration of Independence was a formal, legal document that states the reasons that led the 13 colonies to separate from the British Empire. Thomas Jefferson created this document because American colonists were wanting more freedom and independence. The most known line from the declaration is, “that all men are created equal”. Although ending slavery was a big part of that line, Thomas Jefferson (the main author), owned many slaves as did many of his signers.

Battle of Trenton December 26 1776

Battle of Trenton.

A map showing movements of the Americans and the Hessians.

General Washington planned an attack on the Hessians on December 26, 1776. He chose this date because everyone was celebrating Christmas with drinks and music, unprepared for an attack. This time of year however, came with a cost. It was extremely harsh cold weather and it took a lot of effort to cross the Delaware River on their way to Trenton. They lost a few troops on the journey due to extreme frostbite. Washington’s army was joined by armies under the command of Generals Nathaniel Greene and John Sullivan. Artillery was set up on the two main streets running through the city. Hessian forces became surrounded by American troops and they surrendered when their escape routes were cut off. Only 2 American soldiers were killed in the end and 5 were injured, although, many more suffered from hypothermia and disease. As for the Hessians, they had 83 deaths, 896 were captured, and all 4 Hessian colonels were killed.

Battle of Saratoga October 7 1777

Battle of Saratoga.

Map of the Battle of Saratoga.

The British were planning on cutting off New England from the rest of the colonies. They would do this by taking New York, Albany and the Hudson River. Generals Burgoyne, St. Leger and Howe were to meet at Albany to take down the rebel armies. Burgoyne and his army got trapped in Saratoga blocked by General Gates. Burgoyne’s army attempted to attack the larger Patriot force but was defeated Arnold’s army at Bemis Heights. Lack of supplies and a high number of casualties forced Burgoyne to surrender. The Patriot’s victory at Saratoga was a turning point in the war. It renewed the morale of the Americans and it convicted France the Americans could win the war and decided to support the Americans. France once decided to support, sent generals, troops, ships, supplies, and money to the Americans to help in winning the war.

Battle of Camden August 16 1780

Battle of Camden.

In 1780 the British shifted their military strategies to focus on the southern colonies. The continental congress voted to give command of a second southern army to Horiato Gates, the hero of the battle of Saratoga. This action was taken without the consent of Commander-in-Chief George Washington. They had 4000 soldiers but many were unable to fight.

Battle of the Cowpens January 17 1781

Battle of the Cowpens.

After initial British charge, the first two lines of Patriot fighters withdrew. Tarelton believed that the Patriots were in full retreat and ordered his soldiers to charge but he was not aware of the third line of Patriot soldiers waiting for the British charge. British advance was halted by the third line of Patriots with a bayonet charge. British soldiers were forced to either surrender or turn and run, yet Patriot forces continued to attack from behind. The British soldiers continued to retreat despite Tarelton urging them to resume fighting. In the end, 712 British soldiers were captured and 110 were killed.

Battle of Guildford Courthouse March 15 1781

Battle of Guildford Courthouse.

The Patriots won the Battle of Cowpens which led to British General Charles Cornwallis resolving to wipe out the southern branch of the Continental Army led by Nathaniel Greene. Cornwallis had chased Greene through North Carolina. Little did Cornwallis know, Greene had assembled an army of North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland militia at the Guildford Courthouse in North Carolina. Cornwallis decided to launch an attack even though he had less than half as many soldiers as Greene. General Greene had prepared his army in 3 lines, but unlike the battle of Cowpens these lines were farther apart and unable to support each other. The battle started in the afternoon and as soon as it had begun, the British immediately charged 2 lines of Patriots. The 2 Patriot lines retreated leaving the third on a hill. Cornwallis decided to fire heavy weapons over his own soldiers, which caused many deaths but was effective and resulted in Greene’s army in full retreat. Cornwallis lost over 25% of his men in the end.

Battle of Yorktown October 6-19 1781

Battle of Yorktown.

By 1780, the French were fully committed to supporting the British in the Revolutionary war. A major objective for the French-American army was to take over New York city. French and American forces, which included 5,500 new French soldiers, met near New York city to begin movements to Virginia. British thought this meeting was meant to liberate New York city so they did not send aid to where the army was actually going to, Virginia. Throughout September of 1781, the French-American soldiers marched south over 200 miles within two weeks. This plan was effective, and by the end of September, Americans had trapped Cornwallis’ army from the west and the French had trapped them from the east. Washington’s troops began digging a trench that would be 2,000 yards long, running from Yorktown to the York River. The purpose of these trenches was to allow the movement of larger artillery toward the British defensive walls. French and American guns began launching bullets into British forces from land and water. As the days went on, trenches were dug closer and closer to British fortifications. On October 14, French-American forces stormed the British and took most of the land. Leader of the British, Cornwallis, had a plan to escape across the York River. Due to bad weather, his plan was unsuccessful and he was forced to surrender to the French-Americans. The Americans then took over 7,000 British troops prisoner and the war had almost reached its end.


Treaty of Paris 1783

A page from the Treaty of Paris.

The Treaty of Paris ended the revolutionary war and also helped recognize American independence. Britain agreed to recognize American independence and gave them fishing rights to the Grand Banks off the coast of Newfoundland. This also granted U.S all territory between the Allegheny Mountains on the east and the Mississippi River on the west. United States then agreed to end the persecution of Loyalists and restore the property that was confiscated during the war.


Loyalist: colonists that remained loyal to the British.

About 20% or 1 in 5 American colonists remained loyal and supported British rule. Approximately 25,000 Loyalists fought with the British during the war. The Patriots persecuted the Loyalists. Loyalists were abused by the Patriots and had their farms and homes burned. Due to the Treaty of Paris being signed, between 80,000 and 100,000 Loyalists were forced to leave the U.S. Many of them settled in other colonies in North America such as, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and PEI.

Constitution 1789

The Constitution.

The Constitution outlines the structure and powers of government. The basic principles of the Constitution are; three branches of government are separate and checked and balanced off by the power of the other two, US Constitution is supreme, all persons are equal before the law, as we are all states and each state must be democratic and respect the law of others, the people can change the US Constitution by the methods outlined within it.

Bill of Rights 1791

Bill of Rights.

The following ten points became known as the Bill of Rights to the Constitution. They represent rule of law, ideals regarding individual liberty, and limited government. These rights set law and freedom to the people, which was strict yet beneficial. The amendments are; 1.freedom of worship, speech, press, right of peaceful assembly, right to petition the government. 2. right of citizens to bear arms. 3. troops may not be quartered in private homes without owner’s consent. 4. guards against unreasonable searches, arrests, seizures of property. 5. requires indictment by a grand jury for major crimes before trial, prohibits repeated trials for the same offense, forbids punishment without process and that you don’t have to testify against yourself. 6. guarantees a speedy trial for criminal offenses, trial by an unbiased jury, legal counsel for the accused, and that witnesses must attend the trial in the presence of the accused. 7. guarantees trial by jury in civil cases in anything valued at more than 20 US dollars. 8. forbids excessive bail or fines and cruel or unusual punishment. 9. people have other rights than those mentioned in the Constitution. 10. powers not delegated to  the federal government belong to the states or the people.

Worldwide Influence

An end to the Revolution.

The American Revolution had a domino effect on other revolutions such as the French Revolution in 1789. The Declaration of independence also created an impact on the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, also in 1789. I see it as though since the French were supporting the Americans in the war, it influenced the French to follow in their foot steps and make a change. The revolution prompted other colonial peoples to break apart and become self-governing nations with their voice heard with directly elected representative government.

English Revolution Significant Events Time Line

English Civil War 1625-1649

Cause: Charles I Did Not Rule According to the Law 1625-1642

This man was put in a pillory for speaking his mind.

I believe this was the biggest cause because it created a wall between parliament and the King. If Charles ruled according to the law many of the other events wouldn’t have happened. He obtained money without Parliament’s consent and his advisors were unpopular because they didn’t ensure he obeyed the laws other Kings followed. Charles upset many people and broke many laws, so Parliament was forced to pass the Grand Remonstrance, which took away some of his power. After this Charles invaded the House of Commons in attempt to gain back his power. If Charles had just ruled according to the law in the first place none of these other events would have happened.

Component: Solemn League and Covenant September 25 1643

A page from the Solemn League and Covenant.

Parliament made an alliance with the Scots to secure military help, which they needed to defeat Charles I. Once they merged together they could take Charles’ power away. This alliance created a strong force leaving no chance for Charles and his army. This union gave them the extra advantage they needed and they couldn’t have faced Charles without it.

Component: Battle of Naseby June 14 1645

An interpretation of the Battle of Naseby.

This was a key battle and was really significant to the Civil war. The new model army, led by Oliver Cromwell, was more successful than the previous army. Cromwell was very skilled and led a powerful army that changed the course of the outcome from the battle. This battle was very beneficial because it’s when people saw that the royalist army (led by Charles) could be defeated. “The battle cost the King a large part of his army and rendered the royalist cause hopeless.”

Component: Charles Surrenders May 1646

When Charles surrenders.

Charles surrendered May 1646 after the previous battle, the Battle of Naseby. This was significant because it led to Charles being put on trial in court and concluded in him being executed. This showed the people of England that the King was not above the law and could be brought down by Parliament. This proved that the King isn’t and never will be invincible to law and rights.

Consequence: Charles on Trial January 20-23 1649

Charles on trial in court.

This event had a major impact in history for both the short term and the long term. It proved that no one could rule without Parliament by their side which is how we are today. In court Charles questioned Parliament’s authority and they made the decision to execute him. After Charles’ death they were to establish a new government or leader. Without this trial Charles would have kept disobeying the law and Civil Wars might have continued. The trial of Charles showed the people of England that you can’t rule against or without Parliament and that he didn’t have power over everything.

Cromwell and the Republic 1649-1661

Instrument of Government Appoints Cromwell Lord Protector December 15 1653

Cromwell refuses to become King and becomes Lord Protector.

Oliver Cromwell is elected Lord Protector on December 15 1653. Cromwell had strong religious beliefs as a leader and as an everyday citizen. He was a Puritan and his goal was to convert people to Puritan. Having Cromwell as Lord Protector for this period of time was very significant to the Glorious Revolution because it helped people realize they wanted a Monarch not a Lord Protector. After Cromwell England went back to a Monarchy and this is where we are today.

Blue Laws are Imposed April 1655

The Blue Laws.

The Blue Laws angered the people of England because they majored in Puritan beliefs. Things such as Christmas and Easter were prohibited as well as other Catholic beliefs. When Charles was ruling England he would decorate Puritan churches. This act put Cromwell over the edge and now he is repeating history by forcing Puritan beliefs on all of England. Many people of England disliked Cromwell for those reasons.

Charles II and Restoration of the Monarchy 1661-1685

Parliament Establishes Charles II as a Constitutional Monarch May 1 1660

Charles II is made constitutional monarch.

Parliaments idea of restoring the monarchy and inviting Prince Charles to become King was a very popular decision. Only Puritans were pleased with the Blue Laws and the way Cromwell was ruling. People of England did not want a military dictatorship anymore and were unpleased with the lack of Parliament. They made the decision of making Charles a constitutional monarch which meant his powers were limited, he must follow the law, and he had to govern with Parliament. Unlike his father, Charles II had to govern by these rules which created a more successful country.

James II and the Glorious Revolution 1685-1689

Parliament Invites Mary and William to be Queen and King of England June 30 1688

Mary and William being declared Queen and King of England.

Parliament invites Mary and William to rule England to replace James as they were simply fed up with him. James II violated the test act and Parliament was ready to finally get a constitutional monarchy. This was a turning point in the revolution because Parliament had power over the monarchy. If they had stuck to the original custom and went to the next person in line they might have tried to restore the blue laws or turn against Parliament. This is why Parliament asked Mary and William to rule beside them and here starts the constitutional monarchy.

Mary and William Agree to the Bill of Rights December 1688

The Bill of Rights.

Mary and William agree to the Bill of Rights which set limits to the power of the monarch and stated the rights of Parliament. This document created a lasting peace and made them accomplish their goal of a constitutional monarchy. It gave Parliament a lot of power over the army and decision making included Parliament as well. The Bill of Rights was extremely significant in that it meant Parliament was supreme. This event changed the course of the future and made the Glorious Revolution happen.





Film: Cromwell

This film helped me get a better understanding of the English Civil War. Most of the causes were represented effectively and accurately throughout the film. Seeing the film was more beneficial to me than just reading through the text book.

V for Vendetta

Is V more of a freedom fighter or a terrorist?

I believe V is a freedom fighter because of the following reasons.

He was fighting against a Government that was restricting the freedom of people and spying on them. This Government had lied about how the St Mary’s virus started and in fact had started it itself to take control of the country. They put anyone who was different (Muslims, homosexuals, immigrants and political opponents) into concentration camps and tortured and killed them.

V did not terrorize the general public and only hurt the people that were involved in the torture and killing of innocent people. V encouraged people to rise up against a fascist government using peaceful protest.

In conclusion, from the perspective this movie was taken, I view V as a freedom fighter.