Vocabularie 1.2


BOUÉE – nom, page 31

Définiton: Une balise qui indique des alertes mais c’est flottante, trouvé dans l’eau

Exemple : « Je veux que vous ne nagiez pas hors de la bouée, là! »

RHABILLÉS – verbe « rhabiller » , page 32

Définition : L’acte de se habiller de nouveau

Exemple : Mes vêtements sont tous mouillés maintenant dès que John m’a poussé dans la piscine, et je vraiment ne veux pas me rhabiller!

CRAVATE – nom, page 32

Définition : Une pièce de tissu longue que les gens nouent et portent autour de leur cou

Exemple : Pendant que John est à Bali, il n’a pas vraiment de choix des cravates. Chez soi, il possède une grande collection.

PAILLE – nom, page 33

Définition : Un petit tube, typiquement fait en plastique, utilisé pour la consommation des liquides

Exemple : « Quelle couleur de pailles est-ce que tu veux pour ta fête, Sally? Rose ou orange? Ou peut-être tu veux les deux? Rose pour le pop et l’orange pour le jus! »

CUIVRE – nom, page 33

Définition : Un type de métal qui est rouge-brun en couleur

Exemple : Ma maman préfère des couverts à table fait de cuivre au lieu de l’argent

NŒUD – nom, page 34

Défintion : Le résultat quand quelqu’un ficele un pièce de cordon ou quelque chose d’autre

Exemple : « Désolé mais, je ne peux pas retirer les nœuds de votre collier. Allez acheter un nouveau! »

FAUBOURG – nom page 34

Défintion : Une districte d’une ville

Exemple : « Lequel des faubourgs préfères-tu vivre? L’un avec plusieurs enfants ou l’un qui est beaucoup plus silencieux? »

BRODÉE – verbe broder, page 35

Définition : Quand quelque chose est décoré avec la laine en utilisant une aiguille

Exemple : J’ai trouvé deux oreillers brodés au magasin aujourd’hui. Je les ai achetées.

ENFOURCHÉE – verbe enfourcher, page 35

Défintion : L’acte de sauter sur quelque chose pour que la position se rends entre les jambes

Exemple : Elle est dû apprendre comment enfourcher sur son cheval!

NAISSANT – adjectif, page 36

Définition : Le début de la formation de quelque chose (débutant)

Exemple : Le matin naissant m’a fait oublié le jour mauvais j’en avais avant

Safety First Cheat Sheet


Fire – It is important to know the location of the fire extinguisher at all times and proper ways to help slow down a grease fire by using salt or baking soda. Knowing this will prevent the fire from getting bigger and spreading.

Burns – Instead of using a tea towel to remove/move hot pans, use proper oven gloves as they were specifically designed for its purpose. Tea towels are generally made of thin material which makes it a lot easier to burn your hands and possibly even drop the food you are holding, which could cause an injury or even another burn

Chemicals – Store all chemicals and hazardous products in a cupboard away from anything edible, commonly stored under the sink, to avoid any cross-contamination as that could lead to poison.

Slips/Trips/Falls – Never carry too many things at once, especially when they begin to tower one over another because it could obstruct your view and cause you to slip, bump into something or fall.

Cuts – When washing the dishes, do not keep knives in the sink full of hot water to soak. Soaking them in the sink would increase the dishwasher’s chances of getting cut once they start to reach down for something new to wash, especially when there are more dishes piled overtop of the knife/knives.

Heavy Lifting – Never underestimate the weight of anything you are about to pick up. Doing so with a hot pan may lead to you dropping it, causing a burn or an injury. Always be cautious when reaching for items that are above you. Use a step ladder and make sure you are lifting things properly.

How to Prevent Food Poisoning – Bacteria thrives in room temperature, never leave refrigerated food in that condition for long periods of time, especially when it comes to meat.

Waste Management – Always make sure to organize any trash with it’s corresponding bin; recycling, trash or compost to help the environment and manage any potential messes that may come if one would drop an egg into the recycling bin, for example.

Personal Hygiene – It is important to always carry a hairtie with you if you have long hair and tie any hair up at all times when working on a lab. Doing so prevent any potential hair fall that could easily land in the food that is being made.

Neuron Communication

Neuron structure:
There are three main parts to a neuron. First, the cell body. It is responsible for the neuron carrying out specific actions. It is also where the nucleus is located. At one end of the neurons are branch-like structures called dendrites. These are responsible for receiving signals and carrying them towards the cell body. Meanwhile, the other end of the neuron has a structure called the axon. This is what receives a message/impulse from the cell body and takes it away from it.
Neuron function:
How does action potential move along the neuron fibre?
Action potential is first classified as resting potential, which stays at -70 mV. When a signal is sent towards the axon, depolarization begins. Depolarization is the stage of action potential where it rises from -70 mV due to sodium ions rushing inside the neuron’s membranes. It then gets to a depolarization stage where potassium ions flow out of the membrane where something called a refractory period occurs. This period is the neuron’s process going back to resting potential after it has been stimulated.
How is a signal sent from an axon of a sending neuron to the dendrite of a receiving neuron?
When a signal has reached the end of the axon, it is now in the axon terminal buttons/bulbs. Action potential makes neurotransmitters located in the presynaptic neuron to be released out of the synapse vesicles and out into the synapse gap which then make their way to the postsynaptic receptors. These receptors then take in the neurotransmitters to the cell body and back out the postsynaptic axons.
How does the receiving neuron determine whether or not to send its own action potential?
The receding neuron relies on how the signal is perceived. It can be perceived as excitatory or inhibitory. Excitatory signals mean that there is a positive change and the neuron releases action potential. Whereas inhibitory signals mean that there is a negative change so the neuron inhibits action potential, hence its name.


Pre-Calc 11 Top 5 for 2017

Precalculus is more advanced than Foundations but that should not scare you. In fact, it can be just as easy as long as you follow these 5 rules:

1. Invest in a workbook
I considered saving my $25 and not buying a workbook at the beginning of the year but I’m glad I ended up getting one because it’s VERY useful. I personally HATE doing math on my iPad, I seem to understand what I’m doing more when I write on paper anyways so that’s what a workbook is good for. Not only do you get extra review but you also get thorough examples of the questions you need to do, so if you’re ever stuck, even in class, you can refer to your workbook and the step-by-step examples will always be there for you.
2. Never skip review
Sadly, just listening in class is not sufficient enough. We go through chapters pretty quickly so it can be stressful if you don’t review/recap what you’ve learned at the end of the day. We rarely ever get homework but you should still be responsible and do some questions in your workbook! I promise you it helps

3. Listen in class
Sounds silly, but the teacher always gives you good hints or knows how to explain something better than a textbook sometimes. Listen to your students questions too, for the same reason. Your teacher knows how to break the information down for you to easily understand it.

4. Learn how to use your calculator
Scientific calculators are slightly different than regular calculators and it’s very important to know exactly how to use them, especially during tests. Never miss out on the opportunity to use your calculator, even if you’re certain of your answer. You can always use it to double check!

5.  Never be afraid to ask for help
Your friends, your teacher, your tutor. I guarantee you they’ll know how to explain something to you. Teamwork is important because you may know one thing that your friend might not, vice versa. So don’t be afraid asking for help!

Reducing Rational Expressions

You can only reduce rational expressions when you have factors in your numerator and denominator, not terms.

For example:

x+8/x is made up of terms.

However, factors are made up of terms do something like (x+8)/x(x+8) can be reduced by cancelling out (x+8) on both the numerator and denominator

Now we have 1/x , x =/= 0 or -8


Here is another example :

Indicate the non-permissible values first

(Non-permissible values are values that cause the fraction to have a denominator with a value of zero) They can also be known as restrictions. Restrictions are always in the denominator, never the numerator.

In this case, they would be -3 and -2 so

x =/= -3,-2

(x+3) is in both the numerator and denominator so it can be reduced, our expression now looks like this:

(x+4)/(x+2) , x =/= -3,-2


Another example would be:


We need to turn the denominator into factors by factoring it so we can easily reduce the expression and find its restrictions.

x²-x-12 would be (x-3)(x+4) in factored form.

The non-permissible values are x=/= -4,3

(x+4)/(x-3)(x+4) , now reduce (x+4)

The rational expression in reduced form is 1/(x-3) , x =/= -4,3

When to use What Trig


You should use Sine, Cosine, Tangent when you have a right triangle and you are trying to find an angle or a side. By using SOH CAH TOA, it’s easy to determine which function to use to find the proper side/angle

In this example, we need to find angle X.

From angle X’s perspective, the side length of 3 would be the opposite and the one diagonal would be adjacent. Last, the longest side is always the hypotenuse. To find angle X, we would use Cosine because CAH = adjacent and hypotenuse.

cos° = 4/5

= 0.8

Now, use inverse cosine –> cos-1(0.8) = 36.86

Angle X ~ 37°


Multiple laws can be used when the triangle is not a right triangle.  For example, this is not a right triangle.

If you compare it to the previous images, you will see that all right triangles must contain an angle of 90° , which is an easy way to define whether or not it’s a right triangle or not. Now that we know this particular triangle does not have an angle of 90°, we have a choice of two laws.


This law is used when your triangle has 2 known sides and 1 opposite angle


When your triangle has 2 known angles and 1 opposite side

Coming back to this triangle, we can see that it has 2 known angles and 1 opposite side therefore we have enough information to solve this triangle!

In this case, the formula would be:

a/sinA = b/sinB = c/sinC

Angle A nor side A is indicated so take a/sinA out of the equation. We’re left with:

b/sinB = c/sinC –> b/sin42° = 10/sin32°

Now, isolate for B.

b = 10sin42°/sin32°

side b = 12.6

When you know 2 angles and 1 side, repeat the same steps except use reciprocal of the formula:

sinA/a = sinB/b = sinC/c



If your triangle is still not a right triangle nor does it match any of the Sine Law requirements (if your side is not opposite to the angle, which is key for the Sine Law), then it’s possible that the Cosine Law is what you’re looking for.

You use the Cosine Law when you have 2 known sides and 1 angle in between the sides.


When you are given 3 sides but no angle.

Above is an example of when you are given 2 sides and an angle in between

The universal formulas for this law are:

a² = b² + c² – 2bc(cosA)

b² = a² + c² – 2ac(cosB)

c² = a² + b² – 2ab(cosC)

All you need to do is substitute the given information and simply solve.

For example, using the triangle provided above, the formula would be:

b² = 7² + 6² – 2(7)(6)(cos95°)

b² = 92.321…

b = 9.6in

What Darwin Never Knew

In 1831, Charles Darwin traveled to the Galapagos Islands. There, he noticed strange animals living there, such as large tortoises. He collected several bodies of birds, when he returned back home, he came to the realisation that they were all from one common ancestor. They were all different kinds of finch birds. Darwin did not know why that happened until he found out that the reason they were different is because they adapted to the certain island that they lived on. He studied fossils from Argentina and discovered all species were connected. Due to natural selection, the species he saw that day was the reason they were alive.  Another example of evolution is the pocket desert mouse, certain mice eventually developed dark brown fur to better suit their environment they lived in. The discovery of DNA helped us figure out exactly how this occurred, as Darwin did not know back then. Because of the discovery of DNA, we know that a difference in base pairings can create a vast amount of difference species-wise. Both the discovery of DNA and the theory of evolution has helped us advance in science.

Six Kingdoms

  1. Kingdom Eubacteria

– Cyanobacteria is found in the bacteria domain. It is a moneran, meaning that it is a one-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and organelles

PX45-001a  Blue-Green Algae - Cyanobacteria - Anabaena  spp.  400x

– Aquificae is also found in the bacteria domain. It is a prokaryote therefore it does not have a nucleus either. Aquificae is found in harsh environmental settings such as springs and oceans


2. Kingdom Archaebacteria

– Psychrophiles are a part of the archaea domain. They are capable of growth and reproduction in very cold environments.


– Halophiles are an extremophile organism because they live in high salt concentrations. They belong in the archaea domain.


3. Kingdom Protista

– Euglena is a part of the eukaryote domain and contains up to 800 species


– Trypanosoma brucei belongs in the eukaryote domain and it is mainly recognized as sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in other animals


4. Kingdom Fungi

– Sac fungi is a eukaryotic organism that contains a nucleus.


-Acremonium is also a eukaryotic organism that contains a nucleus and organelles. It used to be known as Cephalosporium


5. Kingdom Plantae

– Bryopsida is a eukaryote. It is the largest class of mosses, found in damp environments.


– Magnoliids are flowering plants that belong in the domain eukaryota. They are a part of the kingdom plantae. It contains up to 9000 species


6. Kingdom Animalia

– Vertebrates belong in the kingdom animalia and the eukaryote domain. Some examples are humans, snakes and parrots.


– Demosponges belong in the eukaryote domain as they are multi-cellular. They are 81% of all species of sponges.