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Bibliographies

BOTANY:
“Rain Forests of India.” Rain Forests of India. N.p., 14 Feb. 2014. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Tropical Rainforests Of India.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Lotus Flower – Growing, Plant Care and Facts about Lotus.” The Flower Expert. N.p., 1 Dec. 2015. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Ficus Benghalensis.” Wikipedia. N.p., 27 Nov. 2015. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Bacopa Monnieri – Flowers of India.” Bacopa Monnieri – Brahmi. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Bacopa Monnieri.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 6 Dec. 2015. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Vernonia Elaeagnifolia – Curtain Creeper.” Flowers of India. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

REDDY,, C. SUDHAKAR. “INVASIVE ALIEN FLORA OF INDIA.” INVASIVE ALIEN FLORA OF INDIA (n.d.): n. pag. Arvindguptatoys. Web.

Nair, Sathis Chandran, Dr. “The Western Ghats – Significance.” Rainforest Info. N.p., Nov. 2014. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Acacia Mearnsii.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“7 Fun Facts on the Gray Langur – India’s Most Widespread Monkey.” HubPages. HubPages, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

Wyant, Jamie. “Indian Pipe Is a Parasitic Plant of Trees and Fungus.” North Santiam. N.p., 9 Oct. 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Tropical Rainforest Plants.” Tropical Rainforest Plants. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Tillandsia.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Commensalism.” – Plants, Relationship, Epiphytes, and Gain. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

Shah, Anup. “Why Is Biodiversity Important? Who Cares?” – Global Issues. N.p., 19 Jan. 2014. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

CULTURE:

Included in PDF

METEOROLOGY:

“Tropical Rainforest Biome.” Animal Facts and Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

“TOP 10 ENDANGERED SPECIES NEWS.” All About Wildlife RSS. N.p., 21 Sept. 2009. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

“Rainforests in Africa.” Mongabay.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015

“Rain Forests of India.” Rain Forests of India. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

“Climate of India.” – New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

“Environmental Biology Sequence – Tropical Forests.” Environmental Biology Sequence – Tropical Forests. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

“Tropical Rainforest Biome.” : Symbiotic Relationships in the Tropical Rainforest. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

ZOOLOGY:
“Born Free Foundation – Keep Wildlife in the Wild.” Born Free Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2015.

“Can You Name 12 Animals from India?” 12 Animals From India. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Dhole.” Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.

“Gaur.” Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.

Grewal, Bikram. “Bharatpur – Can We Regain This Bird Paradise?” Conservation India. Conservation India, 24 May 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

“Invasive Alien Species of Weeds and Insects: The Agriculture-forestry Nexus, Examples from India.” DEVELOPING AN ASIA-PACIFIC STRATEGY FOR FOREST INVASIVE SPECIES: THE COCONUT BEETLE PROBLEM-BRIDGING AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRYDEVELOPING AN ASIA-PACIFIC STRATEGY FOR FOREST INVASIVE SPECIES: THE COCONUT BEETLE PROBLEM-BRIDGING AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2015.

“Large Ears Aid Cooling: Elephant.” AskNature. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.

Wadhwa, Anjali. “7 Rare and Exotic Wildlife Species That Can Be Found in India – The Better India.” The Better India. N.p., 19 June 2015. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

Young, Emily. “Animals in the India Rainforest.” Trails.com. Demand Media, Inc., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.

Images- Zoology:

http://userscontent2.emaze.com/images/5c96b6ee-d3c2-4116-bd75-431adb083141/635378617865539568_Bengal-Tiger-Wallpaper-Desktop-4.jpg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Cuon.alpinus-cut.jpg

http://andhrapra.desh.mobi/image-of/Gaur-andhrapradesh.jpg

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Elephas_maximus_%28Bandipur%29.jpg

https://iamlark.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/nilgiri-tahr.jpg

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Zoology – Daisy

Unique Animals:
The tropical rainforests of India are home to many different species of animals. Although many of the animals can only be found on wildlife reserves since their habitats are being destroyed or threatened, many are examples of how preservation can help an endangered species such as the Bengal tiger. The national animal of India was once verging on extinction, but wildlife reserves have helped to raise the number up.
When you think of India, it is likely that one of the first animals to pop into your head is the Bengal tiger. These tigers are the national animal of India and is the second biggest tiger in the world, not to mention one of the most major predators in its habitat. The number of Bengal tigers, however, have been dwindling, mostly from the poaching happening for their fur.

Another exotic animal you can find here is the Nilgiri tahr. They resemble goats, with bristly manes and stocky coats paired with curved horns. These animals are found in southern India, living on elevated hills. Unfortunately, the Nilgiri tahr population has also been decreasing due to continuous poaching activities and Eucalyptus cultivating encroaching onto their habitat.

Adaptations:
Bengal tigers have adapted to have agile and lean bodies that help them to run, jump, and climb quickly. This helps them to chase after their prey, which consists of animals such as water buffalo and banteng, animals that are adapted to running away from their predators.
The elephant is another animal that has adapted to its surroundings. Elephants live in areas with hot climates and their inability to sweat makes surviving in those temperatures difficult. To help cool themselves down, elephants use their ears (which are huge relative to their body size) to regulate their body temperature. Sometimes elephants will even wet their ears to cool themselves even further.

Invasive Species:
Invasive species are introduced species (that are not native to the habitat/ biome)that have slowly begun to assimilate themselves into the ecosystem. An invasive species is usually regarded as harmful, like the parapoynx diminutalis, an invasive species of moth. The larvae of this alien species have been pests at Bharatpur, the largest bird sanctuary in India, since 2004 when water was rerouted into the park’s surrounding fields, disrupting the artificial wetland that has been for 250 years.

Predator/ prey: A typical predator/ prey relationship occurs between the dhole and the gaur. The dhole is also called the Indian wild dog, red dog, mountain wolf, etc. It is the predator in this situation, and they hunt in packs to take down animals like the guar. The gaur, or Indian bison, resembles what its name suggests; a bison.

It is the tallest species of wild cattle but that doesn’t stop dholes from hunting them down.

 

 

Original species:

The Boiano bird is a bird that lives up high in the trees to avoid as many predators as possible. During their entire life, they hardly ever touch the ground (if they can help it). Unlike many birds residing in tropical rainforests, this bird is actually quite drab in but that only helps the bird further by giving it a means of camouflage. The Boianos mainly eat fruits that grow on the trees they call home.

Food Web/ Chain:

Here is an example of a food web/ chain with organisms found in the tropical rainforest biome.

FOOD CHAINFOOD WEB

 

The second image, the food web, also indicates trophic levels using colours. The names in red/ orange are tertiary consumers while the blue and pink names represent secondary and primary consumers, respectively. The green names are producers.

One Comment
  1. if you don’t mind, i want to use your picture ” food web ” for my presentation about tiger, it s a small group in my class. i love this picture, it so cute

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Meteorology – Yuliya

Location

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World Distribution

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Climate

calcutta_Aw

Rainforests are known by the high annual rainfall of 1750mm to 2000mm and it rains quite heavily but the Sun’s heat is what makes the water evaporate from the rivers and causes the moisture in plants. Tropical rainforests grow in equatorial regions, regions which can be found around the equator and cover 6% of the Earth’s surface. These equatorial regions have a constantly hot and wet climate. The reason it is hot throughout the whole year is because the rays from the Sun are very direct towards the equatorial regions. Normally the temperature is above 25ºC and high humidity from 77% to 88% with the air being calm and no wind. The weather everyday is fairly the same because these tropical rainforests are the only region in the world where the seasons do not change at all.

In tropical rainforests like Mangalore, India climate change has been affecting the amount of rain which results in a less suitable habitat for the species living in these rain forests. Less rain is falling so droughts are now more common than before which increases the risk of wildfires.

Climatographs

May is the hottest month in Mumbai with an average temperature of 30°C and the coldest is January at 24°C. The wettest month is July with an average of 640mm of rain.

mumbai-climate-graph

The coolest month is December in Bangalore with a low temperature of 15.4°C and the hottest month is April with high temperature of 36°C. The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9°C.

bangalore-climate-graph

Physical Features

There are many heavy rainfalls with temperatures between 20ºC and 34ºC, the rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year.

The soil of tropical rainforests in India are quite shallow, low in nutrients and nearly close to being without soluble minerals. The reason being for the lack of nutrients is because heavy rains wash these nutrients that were obtained from weathered rock away (also known as being leached away). Instead, most of the nutrients can be found in the living organisms. The soils in areas of Indian tropical rainforests – or any tropical rainforests for that matter, are laterite soils. Laterite is a reddish clay material, that is hard when dry, forms a topsoil in tropical regions. These soils are those which contain very high levels of iron and aluminum. The reason that these areas in the soil are less poor in nutrients is because those two materials (iron and aluminum) resist leaching. Due to the lack of nutrients in the soil, these tropical rainforests have very low nutrient cycles.

Symbiosis

One example of a symbiotic relationship would fall into the mutualism category. Leaf cutter ants protect fungi from mold and pests. Not only that, but these ants also feed the fungi with small pieces of leaves. On the side of fungi, it helps by letting the ants keep their larvae in the fungi as protection and food source. In this relationship, both organisms benefit from each other.

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Another example would be a part of the competition category. Tropical rainforests are very dense, so there is always competition for sunlight among the tall, old trees and new trees as well as other plants. The taller and older trees are large, resulting in a large shadow. So the newer trees or plants have difficulty growing due to its shadow.

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One more example would be in the commensalism category. Bromeliads, a plant that typically grows in tropical regions, grows on high branches of some trees in order to get enough sunlight to survive. The organism benefits from this by using the tree but the tree itself does not get damaged by this action.

bromeliad_copy

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Botany – Tahir

The beautiful Indian islands of Andaman and Nicobar are home to large tropical rainforests that stretch vastly across the lush isles. The islands are home to over 2200 different species of plants which many are epiphytic (plants that grow harmlessly upon another psciencelant). The lotus flower is a beautiful flower found all across India. The flower is also the national flower of India and is seen as a symbol of Indian culture and mythology. The flower also represents fertility, wealth and knowledge. The national tree of India is called the Indian Banyan, because of its long life, it too is an essential component of Indian mythology. The Indian Banyan has one of the largest canopy coverage for any tree with the largest covering over 19,000 m2. The Brahmi (also known as watscience 2erhyssop) is a plant used mainly as an antioxidant that lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases. It also has been used for decades as medicine to counter epilepsy and forms of amnesia. According to many Hindu mythological stories, the Brahmi had medical properties that could heal almost any disease ranging from leprosy to tumors. Mangos are the national fruit of India with over 100 different species growing there. During the months of March-May, Mango harvesting is such a big thing that people from all over India come to the fields and watch along with all Indian news outlets.

The Acacia mearnsii is one of the world’s worst invasive species and the lush rainforest of the Western Ghats were not spared by its influence. When the Western Ghats’ rainscience 3forests were cut down to make room for infrastructure, the Acacia Mearnsii was introduced to add foliage to the surround areas. The Mearnsii is known as a “weed” and is a very rapid growing legume that grows even faster after a fire. Once its seeds have been released, the seeds last for 50 years, practically ensuring that the seeds will sprout new plants. A. Mearnsii greatly incscience 4reases competition within an ecosystem and reduces biodiversity. The Celosia Argentea is another invasive species that threatens India. Originally from tropical Africa, the Celosia Argentea is a plant that’s appearance is similar to that of Lavender. The Argentea acts similar to weeds by tak        wn how the C. Argentea arrived in India however currently, the plant is not the big of an issue for Indian flora, but if left untreated, it could become as big as an issue as the Acacia Mearnsii.

Ecological Succession is the process of change of a species in a community over time. In the Indian rainforests, one prominent form of this is the change from Soscience 5nneratia to Heritiera fomes. The Sonneratia is a small tree that changes into the Avivennia tree then into the Nypa tree then also into the Excoercaria and lastly Heritiera Fomes, a large tree that is currently an endangered species. Ecological Succession is important because it adds to the biodiversity of an ecosystem which is very important.

Many Mangroves within Indian rainforests that live near wet parts have adapted to survive the wetscience 6, almost marshy conditions. Some mangroves have also evolved so that their roots “boost” the tree upward slightly so that it receives more sunlight. The many epiphytes found in India are evolved forms of other plants. The Epiphytes have adapted to extremely large trees that block out sunlight by grow off of these trees. The pants have also adapted so that they draw their nutrients from the atmosphere, not the tree that supports it.

Symbiosis the relationship between two different organisms and how they give each other advantages or disadvantages. In India, a major symbiotic relationship is how epiphytes have relationships with many large trees. This type of symbiotic relatioscience 7nship is called, commensalism because the epiphytes benefit while the tree is neither at a disadvantage or advantage. An example of an Epiphyte is known as Tillandsia or the Airplant. Because the Airplant is an Epiphyte, it does not effect the plant it is anchored to, its roots are not used that same way as normal roots of plants are used, they are used only as an anchor. The nutrients that the Airplant needs to survive are all gathered through their leaves in a Method called the CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) cycle. During the CAM cycle, CO2 is stored for long periods of time and later used for photosynthesis.

Food Pyramid
This food pyramid shows the transfer of energy from simple sprouting grass all the way to the tertiary predator, the Bengal Tiger.science 8

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Tropical Forests in India

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