Inquiry: Concentration and pH Of Lactic Acid

Purpose: To calculate the concentration, pH of the lactic acid in a Ring Pop.


  • Lactic Acid (Ring Pop)
  • Base: 0.10M NaOH
  • Indicator: Phenolphtalein (ptph)
  • Water (50.0mL)
  • Electronic Scale
  • Stir Stick
  • Mortar and Pestle
  • Pipette
  • Burette
  • 10mL Graduated Cylinder
  • 3x 100mL Beakers
  • 250mL Beaker


STEP 1: Crush Lactic Acid (Ring Pop) using Mortar and Pestle until it is powder or at least into tiny crystals

STEP 2: Place the crushed Lactic Acid on the electronic scale until you have exactly 10g

STEP 3: Place the 10g of crushed Lactic Acid into a beaker then add 50mL of water into said beaker. Stir the solution until all the Lactic Acid dissolves.

STEP 4: Grab 3 100mL beakers and add 3 drops of ptph in each beaker. Measure out 10mL of the Lactic Acid solution with a pipette and add it into each of the 3 beakers which contain the ptph.

STEP 5: Grab one of the 100mL beaker containing the Lactic Acid solution and the ptph and place it under a burette. Fill the burette with NaOH and titrate the solution until it changes color (you may have to shake the beaker a bit for the change to occur). When it changes color, note how much NaOH was used. Repeat process with the 2 other 100mL beaker.

STEP 6: Once you have titrated your 3 100mL beakers, clean up your station and continue with finding the rest of your data based on what you have achieved from this lab

Results & Calculations

NaOH used
Trial 1 7.5mL
Trial 2 7.4mL
Trial 3 7.2mL
Average 7.37mL



The actual of pH for lactic acid is 2.4. After completing the lab and doing all our calculations, we calculated a pH of 2.5 instead. It is only off by 0.1 so we weren’t off by much. Some possible errors for this cause could be some miscalculations with our data; not all of our Ring Pop dissolved and/or we may not have titrated the acid enough. Maybe if we added a little more of the [NaOH] into the acid, we may have gotten an exact pH.




The Six Kingdoms

All living things are classified into 6 different kingdoms. The Eubacteria, Protista, Archeabacteria, Plant, Animal and Fungus.



In the images above, we can see a Bacillus anthracis and a spirochaete. Which are part of the Eubacteria kingdom. They are prokaryote, unicellular and they have a asexual reproduction, therefore they clones themselves.




In the images above, we can see a Dinoflagellate and Foraminifera. Which are part of the protista kingdom. They are eukaryote.




In the images above, we can see a Lokiarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Which are part of the archaebacteria kingdom. They are prokaryote and unicellular. They are nonmotile and asexual.



In the images above, we can see an orchidaceae, most commonly known as an orchid and a lily. Which are part of the plant kingdom. They are eukaryote and multicellular. They are nonmotile and autotroph,



In the images above, we can see a tiger and a sloth. Which are part of the animal kingdom. they are eukaryote, multicellular and has a sexual repodruction. They are vertebrate, motile and heterotroph.



In the images above, we can see a microsporidia and basidiomycota. Which are part of the fungus kingdom. They are eukaryote and heterotroph.


Precalc 11 – “Week 11”

This week in precalculus 11, we learned about graphing linear inequalities.

This is what we learn:

If the inequality was greater than or equal to y:

y=<2x+2, then you also need to shade the line.

Same goes for an inequality which is less than or equal to y.

However if it is only greater than or only lower than, then you must leave a dotted line to inform that the line does not count as part of the answer.

Thank you for reading!

Plot Point Photo Compilation

This project is matching plot points to the short story Father and Son, by Bernard MacLaverty. In the story one can see the conflict between a widower father and his teenage son. There is a no communication between the father and son. This short story is set in Ireland during a time of conflict, which is why the father does not want his son to go out at night. One later finds out the son has had some drug problems in the past and now he hides a gun under his pillow. They used to have a good relationship, but now they hardly speak to one another. This short story ends drastically with the death of the son. He does not die outside as the father predicts, he dies inside of the father’s house. In this project, plot points will be matched with quotes and pictures, to better understand the story.


1) Exposition

Quote: “He climbs the stairs and stands breathing through his nose… looking at me” (page #165).

Explanation: This quote introduces the setting.While also introducing the hatred, the son feels towards his father. The reader learns that the father worries about his son and always checks on him before leaving for work and that the son does not sleep, and rather than talking to his father he prefers staying in bed acting as if he is asleep. The setting and the characters are the two main things needed for an exposition.

2) Rising Action

Quote: “No more than pickings for four weeks. Your face is thin. Your fingers, orange with nicotine” (Page #166).

Explanation: One can see the tension is very stiff between the two, the father worries for his son’s life, whereas the son does not care for his life, because he smokes and rarely eats to stay healthy. This is rising action, because conflict starts to occur between the main characters.

3) Rising Action

Quote: “Son you are living on borrowed time” (Page #167).

Explanation: The father reminds the son that not long ago he could have died. This quote is rising action, because it illustrates more conflict between them.

4) Rising Action

Quote: “I had to collect you like a dog” (Page #168).

Explanation: For two years, the father had heard no news of his son, and when he does it is not from his son, but from doctor. The father had to go get him in London. This is rising action, because it furthermore increases the tension and conflict between the main characters.

5) Rising Action

Quote: “The door swings open and he pushes a hand-gun beneath the pillow… Perhaps i did not see what I saw. Maybe I am mistaken ” (Page #169).

Explanation: Here the reader can see a gun, and instantly know that the situation is turning for the worst. However, because of the miscommunication between the father and son, he does not act upon this. The father is very cowardly, he wishes for the son to talk to him, but he does not even talk to the son. This quote is rising action, because it is develops the tension between the father and son.

6) Climax

Quote: “There is a bang… My son lying on the floor, his head on the bottom stair, his feet on the threshold” (Page #169).

Explanation: A gunshot in the house, the son has been murdered right in the entrance of the father’s home. The father did not want for his son to leave the house, because of the dangers, however he was murdered at home, where the father thought it was most safe. This is the climax, because this is what all the conflict has been leading up to, a death.

7)Falling Action

Quote: “They have punched you and you are not badly hurt. Your nose is bleeding. Something cold at the back of your neck” (Page #169).

Explanation: The father cannot believe his son has just died and tries to make up excuses for all this blood. This can be categorized as falling action, because we are still learning information about the climax.


Quote: “My son, let me put my arms around you” (Page #169).

Explanation: This quote is the  father’s last words to his son. He holds his son in his arms. The son leaves this world the same way he entered it, in his father’s arms. This is the denouement, because we get an explanation of the climax and it concludes the story.