Exploring Waves LAB (Valentin & Amy)


Pulse Wave:

A non-repeating wave; single disturbance


Periodic Wave:

Wave recurring at regular intervals; requires regularly repeating disturbances.


Traverse Wave:

Spring is pulled sideways; disturbance is at a right angle the wave will travel.


Longitudinal Wave:

Several turns of the spring are compressed; disturbance is at the same direction as the direction of travel.


Inquiry: Concentration and pH Of Lactic Acid

Purpose: To calculate the concentration, pH of the lactic acid in a Ring Pop.


  • Lactic Acid (Ring Pop)
  • Base: 0.10M NaOH
  • Indicator: Phenolphtalein (ptph)
  • Water (50.0mL)
  • Electronic Scale
  • Stir Stick
  • Mortar and Pestle
  • Pipette
  • Burette
  • 10mL Graduated Cylinder
  • 3x 100mL Beakers
  • 250mL Beaker


STEP 1: Crush Lactic Acid (Ring Pop) using Mortar and Pestle until it is powder or at least into tiny crystals

STEP 2: Place the crushed Lactic Acid on the electronic scale until you have exactly 10g

STEP 3: Place the 10g of crushed Lactic Acid into a beaker then add 50mL of water into said beaker. Stir the solution until all the Lactic Acid dissolves.

STEP 4: Grab 3 100mL beakers and add 3 drops of ptph in each beaker. Measure out 10mL of the Lactic Acid solution with a pipette and add it into each of the 3 beakers which contain the ptph.

STEP 5: Grab one of the 100mL beaker containing the Lactic Acid solution and the ptph and place it under a burette. Fill the burette with NaOH and titrate the solution until it changes color (you may have to shake the beaker a bit for the change to occur). When it changes color, note how much NaOH was used. Repeat process with the 2 other 100mL beaker.

STEP 6: Once you have titrated your 3 100mL beakers, clean up your station and continue with finding the rest of your data based on what you have achieved from this lab

Results & Calculations

NaOH used
Trial 1 7.5mL
Trial 2 7.4mL
Trial 3 7.2mL
Average 7.37mL



The actual of pH for lactic acid is 2.4. After completing the lab and doing all our calculations, we calculated a pH of 2.5 instead. It is only off by 0.1 so we weren’t off by much. Some possible errors for this cause could be some miscalculations with our data; not all of our Ring Pop dissolved and/or we may not have titrated the acid enough. Maybe if we added a little more of the [NaOH] into the acid, we may have gotten an exact pH.




The Six Kingdoms

All living things are classified into 6 different kingdoms. The Eubacteria, Protista, Archeabacteria, Plant, Animal and Fungus.



In the images above, we can see a Bacillus anthracis and a spirochaete. Which are part of the Eubacteria kingdom. They are prokaryote, unicellular and they have a asexual reproduction, therefore they clones themselves.




In the images above, we can see a Dinoflagellate and Foraminifera. Which are part of the protista kingdom. They are eukaryote.




In the images above, we can see a Lokiarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Which are part of the archaebacteria kingdom. They are prokaryote and unicellular. They are nonmotile and asexual.



In the images above, we can see an orchidaceae, most commonly known as an orchid and a lily. Which are part of the plant kingdom. They are eukaryote and multicellular. They are nonmotile and autotroph,



In the images above, we can see a tiger and a sloth. Which are part of the animal kingdom. they are eukaryote, multicellular and has a sexual repodruction. They are vertebrate, motile and heterotroph.



In the images above, we can see a microsporidia and basidiomycota. Which are part of the fungus kingdom. They are eukaryote and heterotroph.


Precalc 11 – “Week 17”

This week in Precalculus 11 we learned about trigonometry. During the week we improved our understandings of trig and learned two new laws for trigonometry.

The first law is the Sine Law:


The Sine law is used for triangles with no angle being 90 degrees. It can only be used when A, a and either another side or another angle; A, B and c.

The second law is the Cosine Law:


The Cosine Law can only be used for triangles that have the three sides or when a,c and B are known.

Thank You for Reading!

DOAS Monologues

I am a mother of two grown sons. I believe my sons are not doing much with their lives and with that, they cannot criticize my husband for daydreaming occasionally. I am an old woman with grey and white hair, as a stay at home mother and wife. I am very mellow, because I try to be the best wife I can be to my husband, Willy. I know more than other believe I do, as I am very good in math, better than my husband is in math. I also have known for the last few weeks that my husband has being trying to asphyxiate himself with gas using a plastic pipe attached to the radiator, however I am too scared to remove it, with the possibility that it would humiliate him. I am very loyal to my husband and I believe he can do no wrong, and I am more loyal to him than either one of my sons. My husband lies to me about his financial earnings, and I act as if I did not know, because I am worried that it will push him to the edge and he will suicide. That is why I am very timid and anxious towards my husband. I spend most my days worrying about him, wondering if he will get in another car accident.



Blackout Poem – “I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings”

The poem, I Know why the Caged Bird Sings, by Maya Angelou can be interpreted as a poem about freedom of the oppressed people. The speaker talks of two birds: one free and one caged. One bird can roam through the sky as he wishes, taking any route, whereas the other bird is caged “his feet are tied”, “his wings are clipped” and “The caged bird sings”, this bird cannot do as he wishes, and all he can do is sing, (Angelou 12-13). The connotative manner to interpret these stanzas is that the bird, whom can fly anywhere he wishes, is Caucasian people in the US of A, whereas the caged bird is the African Americans of the US of A, whom can only talk to express their oppression. The thematic statement apparent throughout the poem is that even if one cannot moved, no one can oppress your voice or your opinion, “The caged bird sings/ with a fearful trill/ of things unknown” and “his wings are clipped and/ his feet are tied/ so he opens his throat to sing” (Angelou 15-17, 12-14). These two quotes represent the thematic statement, because they are stripped of all their physical rights, but there are no ways to take away someone’s opinion. Repetition or refrain can be seen in the poem to emphasize the multitude of the situation that African Americans feel. There is also various moments where we can see personification, “his shadow shouts” (Angelou 28). Maya Angelou uses a lot of imagery throughout the poem, “free bird” and “caged bird”, are the two most obvious uses of imagery, each signifying people with no restrictions and people with restrictions. I Know why the Caged Bird Sings, by Maya Angelou is very informative on how oppressed African Americans felt towards the way they were treated before they had the same rights as everyone else.

Precalc 11 – “Week 15”

This week in Precalculus 11, we learned about multiplying, dividing, adding and subtracting Rational Expressions. The hardest part about this unit was simplying rational expressions which had adding and subtracting, especially if these were the denominators:



Because x-5=-1(5-x), Therefore







Thank You for Reading!

Precalc 11 – “Week 14”

This week in Precalculus 11, we learned about graphing reciprocal functions. The hardest part about this was graphing quadratic reciprocal functions, because there are three different forms depending on how many roots it has.

Here are the three different ways:

1.Contains one roots:



2.Contains two root:


3.Contains zero roots:


Thank You for Reading!