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Wonder Project

How Did Life on Earth Start?

How did life on earth start is a big question that has been asked a lot and that is unanswered. There are many different theories for this and I decided to research some of those.

The first one says that life appeared on earth in just an instant. Earth was covered in electrical storms and the atmosphere was full of plasma. When a strong electrical current hits two electrode, a powerful conductor often non-metal, it would cause a reaction which would make a sphere. Each of these spheres has two outer layers and a nucleus in the middle made of gas. These spheres had all of the characteristics of any living cell. It has an outer layer, it can reproduce by splitting in two, it can take other atoms and use them to increase its size and it can communicate by sending out energy. These spheres were made in labs making this theory very possible.

Another possibility says that asteroids brought life to earth. During earth’s early years many asteroids hit, these could have carried microbes to which then evolved into modern life. Scientists believe that Mars would have been more hospitable to RNA, an early form of DNA, which is essential for life. Similarly, asteroids could have brought life some of the ingredients for life. They brought chemicals which then formed along with other chemicals on earth would form RNA. These meteors were launched off of other planets by other meteors crashing into them.

On of the most likely possibilities is that life formed in hydrothermal vents. Alkaline which is rich in hydrogen grow around these and along with saltwater, other minerals and the enormous heat that comes out of them helped create life. They are mainly made out of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, they created chains, then got a metabolism, using acids created by the vents to get energy and then lastly, they got genetic codes. So, this process transforms inorganic materials into organic ones.

 

This video explains another way that life could have started.

ADL 10-Information Fluency

1) What were the conditions on earth like 3.7 billion years ago? What defines life? What conditions does life need to live?

2) I used Gale Engage Learning and Ebsco.

3) I searched the questions then I looked at the results, if no good answers appeared I would reword the question.

4) The tools I used had good information, the teacher told us that they are reliable. I used the citation tools on the website.

5) I didn’t remember the ways of wording the questions that were good so every time I had to find a good way of wording it again. Otherwise it went pretty well.

Citations

Elling, Henrik. “3 supercontinents brought Earth to life.” Science Illustrated, Jan.-Feb. 2013, p. 48+. Science in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A312968744/GPS?u=43riss&sid=GPS&xid=ace2751b. Accessed 1 Feb. 2019.

Cohen, David (Dutch activist). “Plasma blobs hint at new form of life: can life arise in an instant, in a burst of electrical energy? Researchers recreating the atmosphere of the early Earth have made ‘cells’ that reproduce and communicate. But they’re made of gas …” New Scientist, 20 Sept. 2003, p. 16+. Science in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A108264960/GPS?u=43riss&sid=GPS&xid=90090427. Accessed 1 Feb. 2019.

“No Panspermia Between Stars.” Sky & Telescope, May 2000, p. 23. Science in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A61591296/GPS?u=43riss&sid=GPS&xid=92489ae1. Accessed 4 Feb. 2019.

Bartels, Meghan. “How Did Life Start? Meteorites Crashing Into Darwin’s Warm Little Ponds May Have Been Trigger; It’s one of the biggest questions in science today–which means there’s lots to argue about.” Newsweek, 27 Oct. 2017. Science in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A510446453/GPS?u=43riss&sid=GPS&xid=0d2e839a. Accessed 4 Feb. 2019.

S.P. “Cooking up a key chemical of life.” Science News, 9 Sept. 2000, p. 175. Canada in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A65860859/GPS?u=43riss&sid=GPS&xid=f8aedf3b. Accessed 5 Feb. 2019.

Nitschke, Wolfgang, and Michael J. Russell. “Hydrothermal Focusing of Chemical and Chemiosmotic Energy, Supported by Delivery of Catalytic Fe, Ni, Mo/W, Co, S and Se, Forced Life to Emerge.” Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 69, no. 5, Nov. 2009, pp. 481–496. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s00239-009-9289-3.

Sarchet, Penny. “Life’s True Cradle. (Cover Story).” New Scientist, vol. 238, no. 3182, June 2018, p. 30. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(18)31066-2.

Lane, Nick. “Life: Inevitable or Fluke? (Cover Story).” New Scientist, vol. 214, no. 2870, June 2012, pp. 32–37. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(12)61633-9.

McGowan, Kat. “Where did it all begin? A new geological finding stirs questions–and controversy–about where and when earliest life emerged.” Popular Science, Sept.-Oct. 2017, p. 38+. Science in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A501246379/GPS?u=43riss&sid=GPS&xid=a8e1360e. Accessed 6 Feb. 2019.

“Mars May Have Had Better Chemistry than Early Earth for Life to Start.” UPI NewsTrack (Consumer Health), Aug. 2013. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c9h&AN=6E8744905837&site=ehost-live.

SIMPSON, SARAH. “Life’s First Scalding Steps.” Science News, 9 Jan. 1999, p. 24. Science in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A53630867/GPS?u=43riss&sid=GPS&xid=8ca1270a. Accessed 6 Feb. 2019.

Images

https://pixabay.com/en/bacteria-germs-microbes-medical-1959389/