Our hypothesis in this question is that we believe that boiling is the better technique. The reason behind our hypothesis because boiling guarantees that it will kill pathogens, viruses and bacteria within the filtered water. Purification tablets take 30 minutes to purify filtered water while boiling only takes around 10-15 minutes. Purification tablets also does not kill cryptosporidium which can cause illnesses and diarrhea. While boiling is considered the best way of taking out cryptosporidium. That is why we believe that boiling is safer than purification tablets.
Here is our plan for an investigation on our experiment that should take us a day to complete. First, before purifying any water we’ll have to filter it because purifying does not eliminate the minerals and dirt within the liquid. To filter we will be using a 2-litre bottle and a glass container to put our half a litre filtered water in. We will be cutting off the bottom of the bottle and fill in two natural resources as our way to filter it. We will use a paper towel at the top of our bottle, half a cup of charcoal, then half a cup of sand, then half a cup of charcoal, then half a cup of sand, and a paper towel on all those ingredients.
Next, we place the 2-litre bottle upside down into the glass container and open the cap. Nothing is falling out because we have the paper towel to hold all of it in. Then, we simply pour the contaminated water from the Oxbow Pond into the bottle and let it filter everything. This process should take about 30-45 minutes according to our research. If we believe that the filtered water may have some similarities as before such as some minerals, then we will filter it again to make the water better.
After the entire filtering process has been finished, it is safe for us to purify the water. For boiling, we will pour the filtered water into a pot, and heat the pot through a stovetop until which the water should be bubbling and have steam. Once that has started, we wait for about 3 minutes before taking it off the oven and letting it cool. For purification tablets, we only need to place only one tablet as the instruction says, a tablet for 0.75 litres. Moving on, we had to stir it for approximately 10 minutes after we dropped the tablet in, and let it rest for 30 minutes. Therefore, that is essentially how we are going to perform this experiment all together.
We are going to use different equipment and tools to record and capture our data. Our prime source of data to see which purify technique is better is our water strips. These will explain the levels of chemicals within the water, such as Ph, Carbonate, Hardness, nitrite, and nitrate by the colour. We will compare the coloured boxes after it was used on the purified water to the different colours on the test strips container. We will record all our data on my phone and took pictures for our Edublog. In conclusion, that would be all the equipment we needed to record and capture our data.
(Test Strips; the top was boiling and the bottom was purification tablets)
We have covered all the procedures we need to conduct our experiment but next is our safety concerns. Some safety concerns that may be present is boiling. Boiling is dangerous because it requires high temperatures to kill off the pathogens and bacteria. It’s best to be with an adult helping you to ensure you don’t get hurt if you are young that wish to try this. An additional risk was extracting the contaminated water because there were thorns and branches on the ground near the Oxbow Pond which were dangerous of wounding me. Thus, that was the clear risks of performing this experiment.
(The left bowl was purification tablets water and the right bowl was boiling water)
Some ethical, cultural and/or environmental issues are how are countries able to purify their water. Purification tablets ensures to kill bacteria and microorganisms in an easier but longer way. However, boiling also kills bacteria and microorganisms, but requires more equipment in a faster way. There are many people in the sub Saharan Africa that have trouble of finding clean and drinkable water because it is scarce for them. Finding which way is the best will save more lives and not let children and people die of dehydration.
As you can see in this bar graph, these are all the visible chemicals we discovered through the water strips and I’ll try to explain each chemical to the best of my ability and how do they affect the water quality. pH or potential hydrogen is primarily the measure of the acidity of the water quality which can be ranged from levels of 0 to 14. However, the range of pH water that you should drink is from 6.5 to 8.5 pH which you can see on the graph that they both land within that range. The lowest level of pH indicates being the most acidic and the highest level of pH indicates that it has the most alkaline. The hardness or general hardness of the water indicates the amount of calcium and magnesium salts. While carbonate, or carbonate hardness indicates the amount of bicarbonate and carbonate anions which they both also refer to the measure of the alkalinity. Having a decent alkalinity will mean that it can fundamentally neutralize acids so the pH may not become more acidic. It’s also important to be aware that alkalinity and alkaline are not the same and have different meanings.
The two differences are the pH and Hardness between the two purification techniques. The pH suggests that the purification tablet technique made the water the closest to being acidic and the boiled water technique is the closest to having the most alkaline. Then the general hardness of the purification tablets appeared to be greater than the boiled water. Since the general hardness was measured in mg/L or ppm if it is between 60-120 it means that it is moderately hard. The boiled water’s general hardness (60) was closer to being soft than the purification tablets hardness (120). Therefore, after researching and gathering the information about each chemical affecting the water, it’s safe to say that boiling is the better purification technique.
Through our data and research, we can state that boiling water is a better purifying technique than the purification tablets, therefore our hypothesis was correct. From our previous graph we could see that the boiled water had a greater Ph and still maintained being a moderately hard water which is safe to drink. The general hardness of the purification tablet may have been greater than the boiling, nonetheless, having a greater alkaline value is safer than having something close to being acidic because there are essential minerals that we need, and it brings benefits like a lesser chance of dying from cardiovascular disease. A mistake that happened to occur was that we purchased an inaccurate water tester that would show unreasonably different numbers of how clean it is. Such as when we used it on the purified tablet water, and it told us that it was extremely contaminated. So, we had to replace it with test strips which made the data seem more realistic. We could have improved our investigation even further by adding small chunks of pebbles into the filter, so that the water is filtered even more and let the purified water from the tablets rest even longer so we could test it again to see changes. The reason that we should have done that because there was some research shown that after one hour after the purification tablet was in the water, that made the even water safer to drink. Overall, boiling is indeed better and safer, but purification tablets can make your life easier of purifying water.
- What was your goal?
My goal in reducing my ecological footprint was to walk to school in the morning and back home in the afternoon.
- Did you achieve it? How or how not?
I was able to achieve my goal when I successfully walked for an entire week of school, also known as 5 days. Which would mean I have walked in the morning and afternoon in a total of 10 times.
- What was the most challenging part of achieving your goal?
The most challenging part of achieving my goal was the distance from my school and my house. It takes me approximately around 20-25 minutes from home to school and from school to home. However, everything was made easier when I was walking a friend and having conversations with him, which made it seem faster than expected when I got there.
- What would you do differently next time?
Next time I shall be walking in the morning earlier than normal, so I don’t have to worry about being possibly late to school.
- Will you continue with this type of goal? If you do, explain what you will do. If not, explain why you are satisfied with where you are at.
I will most certainly try to continue with this type of goal everyday because not only it will reduce my ecological footprint since I am not using a vehicle, I will have a normal exercise and I’ll be building my relations with a friend on the way.
Our class decided to go on a nature walk to explore both the Coquitlam River and the Oxbow Pond which were behind the school. Our objective for this assignment was not only to explore, but also compare them. We were all divided into separate groups that consisted of around 3-4 people to investigate. First, we had to send one person with a hip wader and life jacket to fill the vial with the sample of water and use the thermometer to check the temperature of the air and the water in different areas. This would ensure that he would be safer and not let his or her clothes become wet. While he or she was doing that, we would be writing down the data about the Coquitlam River and the Oxbow Pond.
During that same day we had to move into the second phase which is to find out how contaminated the water is. After our classmate filled the vial with water, we would proceed to use the test strips to accomplish that task. We simply held the test strip into the water for about 1 minute and let it rest at the top of the vile. Next, we had to match the coloured boxes on the test strip to the sheet on the container which would discover the levels of nitrite, nitrate, hardness, carbonate and pH. After when that was all complete, we head back and continue gathering data on the next day.
Finding invertebrates was the number one priority for us the next day. To make that possible, we had to send one brave subject to perform that task. That would involve using a net to scoop up leaves or other objects that organisms would be lurking on. Then placing them into a bucket filled with water so they can be in captive for the time being and taking photos of those invertebrates to gain evidence. Once we had done this for the Coquitlam River, we would do the exact same procedure for the Oxbow Pond all over again. Therefore, I summarized all the procedures we had to do when were participating in this assignment.
Now, I will explain what was the weather and water were like from our perspectives. When we reached to the Oxbow Pond, the weather had no rain, light breeze in the air, and partly cloudy. However, the odor of the water smelled like rotten eggs, the colour was gray or brownish, and the clarity of the water was turbid. The canopy cover was seemingly open and clear because there were not that many trees towering over the pond. For our expedition on the Coquitlam River, there were no rain, light breeze in the air, and a clear sky. The water had no odor apparent, was greenish, and the clarity of the water was slightly turbid.
Here was how the Coquitlam River was like from our location near Riverside. The riparian zone was essentially composed of pathways, trails, and trees. The land use for the Coquitlam River would be for Riverside, fishing, and possibly swimming. When we were there the bank stability and erosion was straight, steady, and moving smoothly. For the stream channel, branches and logs were visible on the Coquitlam River. The substrate or Water body bottom of the Coquitlam River were leaves, mud, rocks, and gravel. In conclusion, that was how the Coquitlam River looked like from when first saw it.
This was what the Oxbow Pond was like from our location near Riverside. For the land use, I don’t think there’s a lot for it because of how contaminated the Oxbow Pond is. The riparian zone was composed of trails and trees. What was interesting was that for the bank stability and erosion, the grass was falling apart as if they were drowning in the water. The substrate was mostly leafs, branches, and mud. When we filled the Oxbow Pond water into the vial, we could see minerals and particles within it, compared to the Coquitlam River’s vial which seem to have clear water. In the end, the Oxbow Pond was murkier and more contaminated than the Coquitlam River.
Chemicals within the water
The Coquitlam River had an average air temperature of 13.5 Degrees Celsius and an average water temperature of 10 Degrees Celsius. The Oxbow pond had an average air temperature of 13.5 Degrees Celsius as well and an average water temperature of 12.5 Degrees Celsius. The Coquitlam River had an average pH level of 6.5, a nitrate level of 0, a nitrite level of 0.5, a hardness level of 30, and a carbonate level of 30 as well. The Oxbow Pond had an average level of 6.5, a nitrate level of 20, a nitrite level of 0.5, a hardness level of 45, and an average carbonate level of 60. Thus, that was the chemical analysis of both the Coquitlam River and Oxbow Pond.
The invertebrates/organisms we found
Here are all the invertebrates and organisms we have found in both water environments in the entire class. In the Coquitlam River we discovered a lot of water striders, two unidentified bug with wings, and unidentified fishes. Unfortunately, we were not able to find any noticeable salmon in the Coquitlam River because they were currently in the open ocean. In the Oxbow Pond we were able to discover more organisms than before. We found a Dragonfly nymph, a riffle beetle, a damsel fly, a leech, and a rainbow trout. Overall, we were able to find a greater variety of organisms in the Oxbow Pond than the Coquitlam River.
(Unidentified bug with wings)
(Unidentified bug with two arms)
(Unidentified green bug with wings)
To summarize, I believe that this was a fun and great way to learn about our local watershed and water quality. This was an interesting assignment to do because it requires you to be outside and be active so you could contribute of what you can do in groups. As opposed to being inside our classroom and just finding the invertebrates on a piece of paper. We explored the different water qualities of both the Coquitlam River and Oxbow Pond by using the test strips and thermometers. As well seeing new invertebrates and organisms with my very own eyes that I learned that exists near Riverside. The nature walks were exciting which made me more engaged to learn and find out that the Oxbow Pond was much more polluted, also contaminated than the Coquitlam River. Through this entire adventure, this was an awesome assignment to do, and I hope to do something just as fun like this in the future.
Will any species evolve to be superior than humans?
After careful research and many articles, it is indeed possible for other species to evolve being something equal or even surpass humans. The most probable way I believe for a species becoming equal or superior than humans is through genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is essentially the alteration of an animal’s genes. In our current generation we can alternate their gene for example by putting a stronger disease resistance from one animal to another. Genetic engineering was introduced to do things such as enhance an animal’s health, make food production better and as well furthering human health. Overall, genetic engineering could make animals have useful abilities we never seen before.
Another possible idea how genetic engineering can make animals superior is if we are able to bring back extinct animals. In 1999, the mountain goat called the bucardo went extinct due to humans hunting for them. In 2003, scientists were able to take samples of the last bucardo and create a clone of it, which was a massive success. However, the mountain goat died just 10 minutes after it was born. This suggests that possibly in the future we can possibly clone other extinct animals such as a mammoth or passenger pigeon. Extinct animals could possess useful traits so we could move that trait to another animal. So, I think that in the future we will be able to revive extinct animals for genetic engineering.
Without genetically engineering an animal so it could evolve to possibly surpassing a human will seem a difficult challenge. We will have to wait since evolution can take very long to even before it starts to show changes. In this generation, environments have been slowly shifting to where there are animals that must change and adapt. For instance, global warming because it has becoming more noticeable over the years, and animals will have to adapt to the heat which then they must find solutions or die off. Nonetheless, there are also other problems for endangered animals like us decimating their habitats. Stephen Jay Gould, who was an American paleontologist and evolutionary biologist says that evolution is impossible to predict due to mutation, recombination, migration, animals surviving and the chances of finding a mate. Whether or not this is true by Stephen Jay Gould, in this generation we can now start to comprehend how animals will try to adapt to their environments and see if we could learn more.
According to Michio Kaku who is a professor of theoretical physics, simply states that it is possible for us to teach an animal our knowledge. An excellent example by the professor could be a chimpanzee because humans are similar 98.5% genetically. It’s possible to teach them our vocabulary, create and use tools because we have the genes to make them intelligent. If this happens, then there could be a chance for chimpanzees to evolve and adapt environments just like we do however there is a problem. Sure, the chimpanzees can be knowledgeable as us, but there’s no reason to because we are just turning a chimpanzee more like a human. In conclusion, a chimpanzee could be taught to be as smart as a human.
Image by : Pixabay
- What questions did you need to research in order to research your topic?
One of the few questions that I needed to research for my topic, is ask are we able to bring back extinct animals and what is the limit to genetically engineering animals? So I could support those answers of how genetic engineering could be the best way of animals becoming superior than humans.
2. What new or familiar digital tools did you try to use as you worked through this project?
Image by : Public Domain Pictures
Digital tools that I have used throughout this project is through google and finding a trustworthy site from researching it, using an educational youtube video to add on my research, and using the Gale Power Search which has been verified by the school as an excellent search engine to find articles.
3. What was the process you used to investigate this topic?
The process I used after inventing my question, is taking all my notes from my wonder project research template and converting it into well thought out paragraphs. Next, I double checked and edited all of my paragraphs, after I cited my sources, posting a video, and a photo.
4. How did you verify and cite the information you found?
Well first, the search engine Gale Power Search was already verified by the school, making it a clear trust worthy website. Next is a youtube video which I found and has been focusing around the evolution of intelligence by a smart american physicist named Michio Kaku. The last site that I verified and cited the information I found was the bio.org site with an article answering asked questions about engineered animals. I was able to verify by going through the site slowly , seeing if anything was suspicious or had errors in the article. Then, I would go to a citation machine to cite the site for me, so I could simply copy and paste the citation or I would create my own citation if there is no author or date.
5. How did the process of completing this challenge go? What could you have done better?
In all honesty of this project, completing this challenge was definitely not easy and tough to find one direct answer to my question. Specifically the sites and articles that would be fit for my project. I could have easily done better if I had put more effort in and not being sidetracked.
Sources: Dunbar, R. (2003, June 14). Evolution: five big questions. New Scientist, 178(2399), 32+. Retrieved from https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A104080928/GPS?u=43riss&sid=GPS&xid=15d35aa7
Mark, J. (2013, Autumn). Back from the dead. Earth Island Journal, 28(3), 30+. Retrieved from https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A342874965/GPS?u=43riss&sid=GPS&xid=94f07ae6
bio.org Genetically Engineered Animals: Frequently Asked Questions Retrieved from https://www.bio.org/articles/genetically-engineered-animals-frequently-asked-questions
1. How might your digital footprint affect your future opportunities? Give at least two examples.
My digital footprint can affect my future opportunities by possibly being favored by other people so I could get a job because I would have positive and outstanding traits or facts. For instance, my Edublog could reflect my passion, projects, skills, and interests which could allow me to have an advantage over other candidates if they were aiming for the same job as I am. My digital footprint could as well affect my future opportunities by having a poor presentation of myself on the internet. For example, If you have said rude or inappropriate things to someone or something in the past within a social media such as twitter then it’s likely that your misdeed will get caught by the employers. This would definitely ruin your chances of reaching the job you were aiming for. Once in the internet, always in the internet.
Owner of image : rawpixel.com
2. Describe at least three strategies that you can use to keep your digital footprint appropriate and safe.
One of the three strategies that I can use to keep my digital footprint appropriate and safe is to double check and be conscious of what I type on the internet. Second strategy would be to remind myself of the consequences of a terrible footprint and that it could haunt me in the future, as it did to other people. Last strategy could be to refrain from posting inappropriate images or photos by checking in with adults such as your parents.
Owner of image : Solomon Jaena
3. What information did you learn that you would pass on to other students? How would you go about telling them?
Information that I have learned and would definitely pass on to other students is to be wary how you respond and interact to people on the internet, be careful on suspicious websites that want to know your information, and try to fill in as much useful info about yourself and accomplishments on your blog.
Owner of image : rawpixel.com Owner of image : Pixabay