- Why did MacDonald develop the National Policy?
Because he needed something to show and convince Canada of his intentions and ideas. The people voted for him because they agreed with his mission and so his party returned back to running office.
- List and explaineach of the three parts of the National Policy. In each case, state why MacDonald thought it was important for the future of Canada.
- Protective Tariffs – These Tariffs raised the former Tariffs from 15% to 17.5%-35%. This helped and benefited the Canadian economy because this stopped many people from buying goods from America and to start buying goods from Canada.
- Increased Immigration – This is another thing that helped and benefited Canada’s economy because the more people, the more framers, which equals more crops and profit. If the immigrants payed an extra $10 fee they would get land.
- The Canadian Pacific Railroad – This helps transport people and goods around the country and troops to help with the defence of Canada.
- Who did MacDonald get to invest in the CPR and what were their backgrounds?
MacDonald got George Stephen who was the president of the Bank of Montreal, Donald Smith, Chief Commissioner of the HBC and James J. Hill, a coal trader, to invest in the CPR. Altogether they made $17 million.
- What did MacDonald promise the Syndicate?
MacDonald had made the promise of giving $25 million in cash to the Syndicate plus a land grant of 25 million acres and a monopoly of Lake Superior for 20 years.
- In order to get the benefits from the Government, what did the Syndicate have to do?
The Syndicate had to finish the CPR within 10 years
- What did the Syndicate do immediately upon being given the railway contract and why?
They had immediately changed the route of the railway because the route was going through Saskatoon and Edmonton which had lots of fertile land. They wanted absolute control the CPR project so they moved it away from land speculators.
- Why was William Van Horne hired as the new manager of the CPR in 1881?
William Van Horne was hired as the new manager because they needed someone with lots of energy and a new manager
- Describe the achievements of Van Horne’s management.
William Van Horne made an almost immediate impact and sped up the construction of the CPR. He was able to have 800 km of the rail laid in a year and another 800 km the next year too.
- What problem did the railway face in 1883 and what was the solution?
In the end of 1883 the company was running out of money and the people were about to build the railways through BC which would cost lots of money because it was rocky. Stephen and Smith both donated their fortunes for the construction which was still not enough. In 1884 the government passed a bill which provided the company with another $22.5 million for the CPR. Even with the $22.5 million, in 1884 they ran out of money again
- Where did the CPR enter into BC?
The CPR entered BC by the Kicking Horse Pass
- In 1867, why do you think the coast of BC required fewer days to get to from Ottawa than the interior of BC?
It required fewer days because to get to the coast you are able to travel further toward the South and you could also avoid the large mountains in the interior.
~ How would you feel if McDonald’s was taken over by Burger King?
7 – Happy
15 – Don’t Care
6 – Upset
13 – Don’t Know
6 – Upset
~ This question relates to the Natives having to give up their culture and take over the Natives culture.
~ My results are basically saying that it is fair even though I think it isn’t.
~ If your family + you gave up your very large house for a very small apartment would you be able to live properly and happy?
2 – Yes
31 – No
14 – Maybe
~ This question relates to your family gave up your land back to Canada and got small land reserves to live on. They were starved and in the beginning the land reserves were very small ()
~ Looking at my results, this is not fair and they would not be able to live happily or properly.
~ If you gave up your house and given a smaller place to live plus little money annually to buy clothing or any other necessary items would you be able to live properly?
18 – Yes
10 – No
19 – Maybe
~ This question relates to how the Natives gave their land back to Canada and got smaller land reserves to live on but also got money to buy whatever is necessary.
~ My results are in between being fair and not fair. The results are saying that they might be able to live if they got money for tools and clothing and a roof over their head.
~ How would you feel if the province/state you lived in was taken over by another country and you were starved, your culture was taken over and you were forced to take over the other country’s cultures (ex. Russia) and the people that lived in that country didn’t like you or the people from your province state?
2 – Happy
22 – Angry
20 – Upset
3 – Don’t Care
~ This question relates to when the Northwest Territories were took under the Canadians and how they lost their culture and that the Canadians didn’t like the Natives and also how the Native’s had to take over Canada’s way of doing stuff
~ Most of my results are saying that this is not fair and they would be quiet upset and angry if this happened.
~ If iPhone was forced to take over Android’s way of doing stuff (ex. apps, how phone looked, worked, etc.) how would you feel?
5 – Happy
9 – Excited
16 – Sad
10 – Wouldn’t care
7 – Angry
~ This question relates to how the Natives culture was took away and they were forced/pushed to take over the Canadians’ culture and how they did their stuff. Many items were took away from them which relates to the apps because Android does not have the many apps that Apple does.
~ Looking at the results many people think that this is not fair and they would be quite upset if this happened.
Why did the rebellion begin?
Because people were angry that the HBC was selling Rupert’s Land without consulting them and that the surveyors were ignoring their rights. Also when William McDougall was appointed as the Lieutenant Governor of the North West Territories.
What was Louis Riel’s role in the rebellion?
Louis Riel was a Lawyer and the leader of the Métis in the Red River Rebellion. He sent the Métis to observe the surveyors and also made the National Métis Community.
How did McDougall allow for the provisional government to gain power?
He failed to receive the letter with the warning that McDonald had sent him and crossed the border into the North West Territories and proclaimed himself Governor then crossed the border into the US which gave the provisional government power.
What are the main points of the Métis List of Rights?
The rights of the people and representation. And to have what all the other provinces have ex. Railroad, fair numbers in the council etc.
What role did Donald Smith play?
Donald Smith was sent by John A. McDonald to negotiate with the French after a group of armed Métis arrested John Schultz and 48 of his supporters.
What happened to Thomas Scott and how did that affect the rebellion?
John Schultz and a few of his supporters had escaped and tried to free a few more supporters including Thomas Scott. The Métis had stopped them from escaping and captured several members including Scott who was later executed. Many people regretted what happened to Scott and because of this the threat of war between the Métis and Canadians had ended.
Describe how the agreement between the Métis and Canada was made.
McDonald refused to allow provincial control of public land but instead offered a grant of 200 000 hectares to the “children of the Métis” and soon after legislation creating the province of Canada was passed by the House of Commons
What role did Colonel Wolseley play after the rebellion?
McDonald had sent a group of 1200 militia under the command of Colonel Wolseley
What to Riel after the agreement was made with Canada to create Manitoba?
When the militia and Wolseley arrived at Red River they found out that Ariel had fled the area thinking that his life was in danger. Soon, the members of the provincial government was granted amnesty by the Canadian government except for Riel who remained in exile in the USA
During the American Civil War, America wanted to withdraw from the North because of their different views and opinions of slavery and the way that economic and political decisions were controlled. The Nort1871. h and South had a war which the North won and because of that, the result of the war went beyond America. During this time the British were having a textile boom and said that war between the North and South was neutral because it’s cotton was coming from the South. The Union Ships were sent out to block the South from from shipping the cotton to Britain so afterwards Britain sent ships that were fast and small to steal the cotton from the South. The Trent Affair happened when a British mailing ship was taking back 2 Confederate agents when a American ship attacked them and took the Confederate agents hostage. Since America was already at a war with the South, President Lincoln said to let the agents go because he didn’t want to deal with this problem. Since this didn’t satisfy America’s needs they decided to attack the BNA but they never went through with it. This would have pushed the Canadian colonies more towards Confederation because they would need to defend their land from America. In 1864 Britain decided to attack back. The South attacked the towns of St. Albans with a group of Confederate soldiers. They were located in Montreal and after they had attacked they escaped through the border. The British arrested the prosecutors but later let them go. This pushed the BNA colonies together because when the US threatened them they realized that they had each other so that they didn’t need to fight alone. During the Civil War a belief called Manifest Destiny was gaining popularity in the US. They believed that US would take over North America. This became more popular when US bought New Mexico and California and added Texas. As the US continued to get bigger, they turned their attention for he BNA where they were looking for land as a source of natural resources. This never took place fortunately.
In 1859, some Irish Americans created a group called the Fenians. They wanted Irish to be free from British control. An idea the group thought of was taking hostage some people form the BNA colonies and not letting them go until Britian freed Ireland. The Fenians were drawn as cartoon scarecrows which were were tattered. This was symbolizing that the Fenians that they looked scary but couldn’t hurt or scare anybody. This didn’t stop the Fenians from continuously attacking and invading the BNA colonies. Soon the BNA people started working together to stop the Fenians from invading them. This went on till 1871. The colonies started to believe that they needed unions and joined together to defend the BNA colonies.
Another reasons that the BNA colonies were pushed together was the cancellation of the Reciprocity Treaty. The US cancelled this treaty thinking that that the BNA would agree to create a Union with them because they couldn’t sustain their economy. But the BNA colonies didn’t do what the Us thought and stayed independent. The leaders realized that they had rejected two of the biggest economic fortunes and they were perfectly fine. When they say this they realized all they had to do was work and stay together.
Confederation In Canada
The railroads were built because most of the colony was made up of canals and waterways which were frozen for up to 5 months every year and very poor roads. The railways were built as a portage between Montréal and Lake Champlain. The railways only carried little freight. The people were very excited to get the railroads to carry freight for them. This pushed the colonies towards confederation by joining them by railroads and sharing enthusiasm and giving people that work in mines less work to do, instead of carrying the coal to places, to just send it by trains.
The reciprocity treaty was made because Great Britain started buying crops from other places and Canada needed a new market to sell their products to so Canada turned to the USA and tried to sign a reciprocity treaty. In the US, Washington said no because they didn’t see economic advantages of an agreement like this. But the fisheries industry raised the economic advantages for the signing of the reciprocity which was eventually signed because Canada granted access to US for using the coastal waters of Canada. This pushed people towards the confederation because they didn’t have to give their crops and produce to the British anymore and to a different place which would give them an advantage. The difference made a huge impact.
The Corn Laws was something that sold Canadian grain to Britain. This would have less duty than for Britain to buy them from other countries. This helped Canadian producers gain profits but the limitation of importing grains from other countries made bread in Britain expensive. This contributed to the Irish starvation during the potato famine. But Britain repealed (abolished) the Corn Law which was not restricting Britain from buying grain from other countries anymore. Britain could now buy wheat flour and other products for a lower price from any country. This caused Canada to go into economic depression. A more independent Canadian government which could develop its own economic policies could help that problem. To achieve this a self-government was needed. But that didn’t happen. This Law helped push Canada towards Confederation by first letting them fail and then making a more responsible government which would not sell grain and other products to Britain only anymore
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