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London Conference:


The joining of the BNA colonies

During the American Civil War, America wanted to withdraw from the North because of their different views and opinions of slavery and the way that economic and political decisions were controlled. The Nort1871. h and South had a war which the North won and because of that, the result of the war went beyond America. During this time the British were having a textile boom and said that war between the North and South was neutral because it’s cotton was coming from the South. The Union Ships were sent out to block the South from from shipping the cotton to Britain so afterwards Britain sent ships that were fast and small to steal the cotton from the South. The Trent Affair happened when a British mailing ship was taking back 2 Confederate agents when a American ship attacked them and took the Confederate agents hostage. Since America was already at a war with the South, President Lincoln said to let the agents go because he didn’t want to deal with this problem. Since this didn’t satisfy America’s needs they decided to attack the BNA but they never went through with it. This would have pushed the Canadian colonies more towards Confederation because they would need to defend their land from America. In 1864 Britain decided to attack back. The South attacked the towns of St. Albans with a group of Confederate soldiers. They were located in Montreal and after they had attacked they escaped through the border. The British arrested the prosecutors but later let them go. This pushed the BNA colonies together because when the US threatened them they realized that they had each other so that they didn’t need to fight alone. During the Civil War a belief called Manifest Destiny was gaining popularity in the US. They believed that US would take over North America. This became more popular when US bought New Mexico and California and added Texas. As the US continued to get bigger, they turned their attention for he BNA where they were looking for land as a source of natural resources. This never took place fortunately.

In 1859, some Irish Americans created a group called the Fenians. They wanted Irish to be free from British control. An idea the group thought of was taking hostage some people form the BNA colonies and not letting them go until Britian freed Ireland. The Fenians were drawn as cartoon scarecrows which were were tattered. This was symbolizing that the Fenians that they looked scary but couldn’t hurt or scare anybody. This didn’t stop the Fenians from continuously attacking and invading the BNA colonies. Soon the BNA people started working together to stop the Fenians from invading them. This went on till 1871. The colonies started to believe that they needed unions and joined together to defend the BNA colonies.
Another reasons that the BNA colonies were pushed together was the cancellation of the Reciprocity Treaty. The US cancelled this treaty thinking that that the BNA would agree to create a Union with them because they couldn’t sustain their economy. But the BNA colonies didn’t do what the Us thought and stayed independent. The leaders realized that they had rejected two of the biggest economic fortunes and they were perfectly fine. When they say this they realized all they had to do was work and stay together.

Confederation In Canada

Confederation In Canada

The railroads were built because most of the colony was made up of canals and waterways which were frozen for up to 5 months every year and very poor roads. The railways were built as a portage between Montréal and Lake Champlain. The railways only carried little freight. The people were very excited to get the railroads to carry freight for them. This pushed the colonies towards confederation by joining them by railroads and sharing enthusiasm and giving people that work in mines less work to do, instead of carrying the coal to places, to just send it by trains.

The reciprocity treaty was made because Great Britain started buying crops from other places and Canada needed a new market to sell their products to so Canada turned to the USA and tried to sign a reciprocity treaty. In the US, Washington said no because they didn’t see economic advantages of an agreement like this. But the fisheries industry raised the economic advantages for the signing of the reciprocity which was eventually signed because Canada granted access to US for using the coastal waters of Canada. This pushed people towards the confederation because they didn’t have to give their crops and produce to the British anymore and to a different place which would give them an advantage. The difference made a huge impact.

The Corn Laws was something that sold Canadian grain to Britain. This would have less duty than for Britain to buy them from other countries. This helped Canadian producers gain profits but the limitation of importing grains from other countries made bread in Britain expensive. This contributed to the Irish starvation during the potato famine. But Britain repealed (abolished) the Corn Law which was not restricting Britain from buying grain from other countries anymore. Britain could now buy wheat flour and other products for a lower price from any country. This caused Canada to go into economic depression. A more independent Canadian government which could develop its own economic policies could help that problem. To achieve this a self-government was needed. But that didn’t happen. This Law helped push Canada towards Confederation by first letting them fail and then making a more responsible government which would not sell grain and other products to Britain only anymore

Refugees In Windsor


Thomas Jones

Pg 326, 327, 328

Quote 1:

“I have seen this, ever since I have been here, — the bad effects of this giving. I have seen men waiting, doing nothing, expecting something to come over to them.”

This quote is saying that you cannot just wait for something to come to you, you have to work hard for it and earn it. This is also saying that they all have to be independent and not rely on other people.

Quote 2:

“I am worth three or four thousand dollars, and pay about thirty dollars a year tax.”

This is saying that he is worth more in Canada then he was in USA when he was a slave. He is more valuable and now has the chance to be independent and pay for his own taxes.