The materials we use:
tongs, steel wool and a Bunsen burner.
we need stretch the steel wool first
Before: the steel wool has metallic luster.
During: With a pair of tongs, place the magnesium into the flame of
a Bunsen burner. The steel wool showed bright orange flame, and drop a piece.
after: the steel wool became dark and dull.
The materials we use:
a Bunsen burner
we need open it about 5 seconds.
During: The flame tip seems to have water mist
The materials we use:
a small yellow graduated cylinder
The KI is not part of
the reaction, it simply acts a catalyst.
before: H2O2 is white solid, Kl is clear liquid
during: liquid turn yellow, liquid going up.
after: The liquid drops back to its original position, and a little liquid remains above.
The materials we use:
before of coppers: has metallic luster.
after 5 minutes: A few bubbles form and the liquid turns blue-green.
after: Bubbles and whites crystals surround the heart, the liquid kept blue-green.
The materials we use:
a spot plate
before: Potassium iodide is clear, Lead (II) nitrate is clear
after: Potassium iodide and Lead (II) nitrate mixed turn yellow.
Litmus paper blue:
Acid with litmus is remained blue
Base with litmus is turned red
mixed with litmus is turned red
Red litmus paper
Acid with litmus is remained red
Base with litmus is turned blue
mixed with litmus is remained red
Besides we have other intelligent advanced creatures?
The first point of Fermi’s paradox, the scale problem, is an order of magnitude estimate: the Milky Way has about 250 billion (2.5 x 1011) stars, and the observable universe has 700 boundary (7 x 1022). Even though intelligent life appears in a planet around these stars with a small probability, there should be a considerable amount of civilization in the Milky Way alone. This is also in line with the principle of mediocrity, that is, the earth is not special, just a typical planet, with the same laws and phenomena as other stars. The Drake formula can support this argument.
The Drake equation is:
- N = the number of civilizations in our galaxy with which communication might be possible (i.e. which are on our current past light cone);
- R∗ = the average rate of star formation in our galaxy
- fp = the fraction of those stars that have planets
- ne = the average number of planets that can potentially support life per star that has planets
- fl = the fraction of planets that could support life that actually develop life at some point
- fi = the fraction of planets with life that actually go on to develop intelligent life (civilizations)
- fc = the fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space
- L = the length of time for which such civilizations release detectable signals into space
- Question: There are so many aliens that may exist why we didn’t see it?
- The second point of Fermi’s paradox is the answer to the scale view:
- considering the ability of intelligent life to overcome resource scarcity and the tendency to expand outward, any higher civilization is likely to find new resources and open up their star system. Then there is the galaxies involved in the neighborhood. Because after the birth of the universe 13.7 billion years ago, we did not find tangible and reliable evidence of the existence of other intelligent life in the earth or other parts of the observable universe; we can think that intelligent life is very rare, or our general behavior towards intelligent life. The understanding is wrong.
- A Type I civilization—also called a planetary civilization—can use and store all of the energy available on its planet.
- A Type II civilization—also called a stellar civilization—can harness the total energy of its planet’s parent star (the most popular hypothetical concept being the Dyson sphere—a device which would encompass the entire star and transfer its energy to the planet(s)).
- A Type III civilization—also called a galactic civilization—can control energy at the scale of its entire host galaxy.
This is just a hypothesis.
A Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure that completely encompasses a star and captures a large percentage of its power output. The concept is a thought experiment that attempts to explain how a spacefaring civilization would meet its energy requirements once those requirements exceed what can be generated from the home planet’s resources alone. Only a tiny fraction of a star’s energy emissions reach the surface of any orbiting planet. Building structures encircling a star would enable a civilization to harvest far more energy.
Question: 1.Now we are not found A Dyson sphere in the sun (stellar). So has them a Type I civilization ?
2.They are not in the Milky Way, so they can use the entire galaxy no need the sun?
Allan Hills 77005 (also known as Allan Hills A77005, ALHA77005, ALH77005 and ALH-77005 is a Martian meteorite that was found in the Allan Hills of Antarctica in 1977 by a Japanese National Institute of Polar Research mission team. Like other members of the group of SNCs (shergottite, nakhlite, chassignite), ALH-77005 is thought to be from Mars.In March 2019, researchers reported the possibility of biosignatures in this Martian meteorite based on its microtexture and morphology as detected with optical microscopy and FTIR-ATR microscopy, and on the detection of mineralized organic compounds, suggesting that microbial life could have existed on the planet Mars.
Allen Hills meteorite 84001 ( often abbreviated as ALH 84001 ), and transliterated as Alan Hills 84001, is an American Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET) The group discovered a meteorite on December 27, 1984 in the Allen Hills of Antarctica. Like other meteorites in the SNC group , ALH 84001 is also considered to be from Mars. In 1996, the meteorite was on the headlines of global news, when scientists announced that the meteorite might contain evidence of tiny fossils of Martian bacteria.
1.There are no other civilizations present.
2.There is always only life on earth.
3.Wisdom creatures are self-destructive
In a short period of time before or after the development of radio or space flight technology, technological civilization may or may not self-destruct. Possible extinctions include nuclear warfare, biological weapons or accidental viral infections, nanotechnological catastrophe, irrational physics experiments, artificial intelligence that is out of control, Malthus disasters after the deterioration of the Earth’s biosphere, resource depletion or energy depletion, especially fossil energy Depletion leads to a retreat into a non-technical civilization. Such topics are discussed in both novels and mainstream scientific theories. Some people think that the end of mankind may come faster than expected. In 1966, Carl Sagan and Iosif Shklovsky proposed that technological civilization would either be self-destructive in the process of developing interstellar communications for a century, or master its own destiny and continue to survive for hundreds of millions of years. Self-destruction can also be examined from the point of view of thermodynamics: life is an ordered system that can maintain itself and fight against disorder; but “external transmission” or interstellar communication may be a turning point in the system becoming unstable and self-destructive. .
4.Alien civilization exists, but…
Due to the order of magnitude…
- The time between civilizations is too far away to be easily accessible
- Alien civilization has discovered human beings, but the signal sent back has not yet reached the earth.
- Earth people have not noticed that the signal is a product of alien civilization.
- The signals sent by the Earth have inadvertently destroyed the alien civilization.
Due to technical reasons…
- Civilized technology may never effectively transcend galaxies
- The way humans look for extraterrestrial life is not correct, so they have not seen it.
- Technical civilization generally goes through technical singularities. Since then, human interaction with the singularity has not been possible, or meaningless.
- Extraterrestrial technical phenomena are too close to natural phenomena to distinguish them.
They deliberately don’t answer…
- Dark forest rule
They have been in contact with humans, just…
- They exist on higher dimensions and humans cannot perceive
Intention to hide evidence of contact.
- Unintentional hiding, but humans themselves refuse to admit evidence of contact with aliens, such as crop circles.
- liens only contact with the right humans, although there is no hidden evidence, but there is no intention to publish them widely.
fermi paradox 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNhhvQGsMEc
a Dyson Sphere https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pP44EPBMb8A
In my opinion:
Humans have identified many planets that can live. Other living conditions have been created. So the possibility of aliens is actually very large. Furthermore， if it is just us that look like waste lot of space. Aliens may exist, and large filtering theories may exist at the same time. This reminds me of the age of dinosaurs that lived on Earth earlier.
I know I am good at this because I like to experiment.I think it is first to think and then experiment and improve.Like a game.
Think bold and in line with physical conditions.Time is also important too.I thought it was great when we did it.We have improved a lot of deficiencies and wasted a lot of time.
——————————————-shuqi and yimeng