Wind Erosion

  1. Wind eroded lands benefit the economy as it generates tourism. The wind can blow sediments and minerals, adding nutrients back into soil, helping our farming.
  2. Water is considered a chief agent because when flash floods occurs in these areas, it is not able to seep into the ground. Instead, it washes away the top layer of sand. Arid landscapes develop in areas where the rate of evaporation exceeds precipitation.
  3. The wind erodes, transports, and deposits light rocks and sediments. These materials are often in motion which can Make it destructive to the environment around and settling. Aeolian erosion is when the wind uses sand as an abrasive element to wear down rocks. These are not good conditions for settlement because whatever is in the area would frequently be sandblasted.
  4. Human contributes to wind erosion because they are contributors to the removal of vegetation. Vegetation helps anchor the light sediments and sand. Without it, they have nothing to hold it in place.
  5. To mitigate wind erosion, more plants can be added to areas with lots of sand (vegetation). This enables their roots to keep sediments and materials in place.
  6. Wind erosion threatens the security of our food sources (agriculture). It also affects the quality of our air. It impacts us economically to restore damage, although not as severely as major natural disasters.

Open Letter – Fracking

Dear Mr. Heyman,

I am writing you to address a few concerns I have about fracking. The fracking process often leaks methane, which is one of the most potent pollutants in our atmosphere today and it is a byproduct of the fracking process. Obtaining oil or natural gas creates methane leaks all the way down the supply chain. fracking also contaminates drinking water with regularity if left unsupervised. A study that was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reports that high-volume fracking has the potential to contaminate groundwater tables, wells, and drinking water systems. Also, chemical additives are used in the drilling mud, slurries and fluids required for the fracking process. Each produces millions of gallons of toxic fluid containing not only the added chemicals, but other naturally occurring radioactive material, liquid hydrocarbons, brine water and heavy metals. Fissures created by the fracking process can also create underground pathways for gases, chemicals and radioactive materials.

Moreover, fracking-related air pollution creates major health threats. A number of other air contaminants are released through the various drilling procedures, including construction and operation of the well site, transport of the materials and equipment, and disposal of the waste. Some of the pollutants released by drilling include: benzene, toluene, particulate matter and dust, ground level ozone, or smog, and metals contained in diesel fuel combustion etc, with exposure to these pollutants known to cause short-term illness, cancer, organ damage, nervous system disorders and birth defects or even death and these pollution events are in the highest concentration for those who lives near a well.

Thank you for your consideration.

Shelby Lim

26 Pros And Cons Of Fracking

Population Distribution

1) Pessimists/Malthusians: People who have pessimistic views on population growth due to limited food supply. Predictions are not realized because they do not foresee the improvements in agriculture, hygiene, and medicine.

Neo Malthusians: People who share Malthus’ pessimistic views regarding population growth. Predict disaster will overtake populations in the world’s poorest developing countries due to increase in global warming, shortages of arable land, conflicts over fresh water, declining fish stocks and the spread of AIDS and other diseases.

Optimists/Cornucopian: People who have optimistic views on population growth due to advances in science and technology. They have faith in mankind’s ability to find innovations, such as solar and wind energy, that will increase Earth’s carrying capacity.

2) ‘Kenya’s Human Time Bomb’ fits into the Neo Malthusians category. The reason why is mostly due to the fact that Kenya is extremely short on land, so there are gang wars attempting to fight for land ownership. “The family has lost everything. They want to be resettled somewhere safe, but there is no land to accommodate them and they have no idea how long they will be homeless.” (7:25-7:33) This supports my claim because it advocates my claim that they are short on land, and they lost their homes due to a malicious attack. Another reason is the decline in hospital resources subituting for ‘declining fish stocks’ from the Neo Malthusian definition. “The doctors are working overtime to save peoples’ lives, but even on a normal day, the facilities are overstretched. And as a result, these two badly wounded little girls with very very bad burns from the burning huts have to share a bed.” (5:08-5:23) Reporter, Aiden Hartley, explains the situation in the overcrowded wards. Due to overpopulation, there is conflicts regarding hospital resources, and Kenyan doctors are revealing their pessimistic and unsure views of the crisis. “It was clear we just bring one after another (patients) and now this? I really don’t know.” (referring to the injured girls sharing a bed) (5:37- 5:46) Neo Malthusians share Malthus’s pessimistic views regarding population growth.

‘Global population growth, box by box’ fits into the Optimist/Cornucopian category. This is due to Rosling’s explanation of the world’s development from the least developed to the most developed.  Due to technology advances, the developing countries gain more advanced vehicles. “But there is a continuous rural from walking, biking, driving, flying, and most people tend to be in the middle. This is the new world we have today in 2010. And what will happen in the future? I will project into 2050. Well, I was in Shanghai recently and I listened to what’s happening in China. And it’s pretty sure that they will catch up; just as Japan did.” (4:07-4:40) Rosling implies that mankind will soon create good change through technology advancement. He mentions more of the developing countries such as China and Japan reaching the full technology extent we have present in the most developing countries; this contributes to an optimistic outlook in the future. “This one will grow with 1 to 2 to 3 precent and this one grows with 7, 8 and they will end up here; they will start flying. And, these lower meddling countries, they will also forge forward economically.” (4:43-4:58) This evidence supports my claim as well because it further proves the economic and technological growth in the future. Overall, the documentary is seemingly Cornucopian for that reason.

English 11 Blog Log 2

There is always someone there for you

The topic of this essay is friendship, this has draw my attention since I really care about friendships, the title of this essay is We Are Never Alone. I like how the author gives a lot of examples, he even talks about his own experience. Nowadays, there’s a lot of movies, TV shows or music about friendship and I think most of them gives the same message that we can always count on our friends, our friends are always there for you etc. I personally like this article very much and I extremely agree with the author’s point of view. He describes how the meaning of friend is different to different ages. He suggests that when we were younger, we would think of a friend as our playmate, but when we get older we think of them as a person you can trust or even family. Friends are our lost brothers and sisters.


  1. Weathering is defined as the disintegration or deposition of rocks in places on or near the earth’s surface. Erosion is the removal and movement of rock debris and associated organic matter. Deposition occurs when a drop in energy slows the transporting agent to the point where it deposits some of its rock materials.
  2. Weathering: Frost shattering, water seeps into fractures and joints within rocks, it freezes into ice crystals and expands, splitting the rocks apart. Erosion: bodies of water transports water from one place to another. Deposition: After being transported by water, water helps create clay and deltas.
  3. Positives: discovers minerals, flattens land and creates landscapes. Negative: causes landslides, floods, building breakage.
  4. Physical: Humans steps on rocks, walking. Chemical: CO2 is added in the air and makes acid rain.
  5. Physical weathering breaks down rocks to create larger surface area for chemical weathering.
  6. Some types of rocks weather more rapidly in humid climates, while dry climates make other rocks more susceptible to attack.
  7. Water evaporates in a desert climate, it leaves behind small salt crystals in rock pores and fissures. Springs wet rocks at the base of sandstone cliffs.
  8. In cooler areas, physical weathering is more common and southern Canada is cooler so it’s more likely to be physical weathering. In hotter tropical areas, chemical weathering is more common.

Population Pyramid

  1. The dependency ratio for Hong Kong is 40.28886052 = 40%. I think this is low since the population in ages 20-64 is higher.
  2. Hong Kong is a very small city and there are 7,191,503 people, the population of the ages 50-59 is the highest and surprisingly, the population of females is higher than males. In 2017, there were 334,172 births and there were over a thousand people who was 100 years old. Hong Kong is nearing stage two in the Demographic Transition Model (DTM). Hong Kong is always known has having a high population, the death rates are increasing due to improvements in medical care, better sanitation an improved education and the birth rates are increasing due to strong religious values.
  3. Since there’s getting more elderly, for technology, we can promote more advanced technologies that are convenient and easy for elderly to use. For entertainments, there should be more recreation centres for elderly, where they can do different things, for example having a chess club, swimming, fitness or even a dance club. Since the birth rates are increasing, I think they should build more schools, currently in Hong Kong,  it is hard for children to get into a school since they have limited places. For medicals, they should have more advanced equipments and also have more hospitals since there are also limited places, patients have to wait for several years to get a surgery due to the high population.

Geography Plate Tectonics Questions

  1. It is important because they are under constant pressure, the plastic nature allows them to flow slowly.
  2. Mid-Ocean Ridge: Diverging, Mountain Belts: Converging, San Andreas Fault: Transform Fault
  3. It would be better to live in a regularly active fault line because the earthquakes will be minor and small because there’s only little pressure. But in an inactive fault line the pressure is higher and we might experience bigger earthquakes.
  4. It is because there is no pressure forcing magma up.
  5. Japan and Indonesia face more earthquakes because they are in an area with a high concentration of converging plate boundaries.
  6. The fault line is close to BC, so we have to be prepared when there’s an earthquake.
  7. Volcanoes are usually found along the converging fault lines.
  8. Japan are at risk of earthquakes due to the high density of people and that Japan is near the fault lines.

Geography Rock Questions

  1. Metamorphic soapstone affects me because it creates jewellery. Marbles and granite are used in buildings for interior designs such as for the kitchen tables.
  2. Metamorphic rocks are affected by the earth’s internal heat and energy. Igneous rocks are affected by the atmosphere because these rocks are formed by the cooling of molten when exposed to the air. They can also be affected by the hydrosphere when lava gets in contact with her.
  3. It is because the creation of sedimentary rocks is closely related to the movement of water and the hydrological cycle, but metallic minerals are usually found in hotter situation, they do occur in concentrations where magma has cooled slowly.
  4. Metamorphic rocks form where the earth’s crustal plates collide, pushing up new mountain ranges. In Canada, metamorphic rocks are usually found in the West Coast because it is close to the fault line where plates collide.
  5. Most large oil and gas deposits are found in areas where originally flat-lying sedimentary rocks were gently folded or faulted to create geological traps.
  6. The banding of metamorphic rocks is a result of the rearrangement of specific crystals or minerals, while the rock was under heat and pressure. The rock does not readily break along such bands, but sedimentary rocks do, however, tend to break along their layers.
  7. BC – Intrusive, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
    Alberta – Sedimentary
    Saskatchewan – Sedimentary,
    Manitoba – Intrusive, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
    Ontario – Intrusive, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
    Quebec – Intrusive
    Newfoundland/Labrador – Intrusive
    New Brunswick – Intrusive
    Yukon – Intrusive, Sedimentary
    Northwest Territories – Sedimentary
    Nunavut – Sedimentary, Metamorphic
  8. Rocks can have a major influence on the economy, because fossil fuels and metals can make up a large part of a countries income.