Archive of ‘Science 10’ category

Rube Goldberg Assignment: The Kettle Krasher

Objective: Turn off the Kettle


The Steps – Explained: 

A. To activate the machine, Emily comes over and uses an elastic band to hit the rubber ball.

B. The ball rolls down a cardboard ramp.

C. The ball knocks over four books standing close to each other.

D. The books hit two marbles (metal balls), causing them to roll down the track and fall into a plastic cup.

E. The plastic cup is attached to a pulley. Therefore, when the marbles fall into the cup, the increase in weight of the cup causes it to descend.

F. Attached to the other end of the pulley is another plastic cup. This works the same way as classical pulleys do. This cup ascends because it weighs less.

G. When the second plastic cup ascends, it pulls the cardboard stopper attached to it that is preventing the tennis ball from rolling down a track. Once the stopper has been pulled away, the tennis ball rolls down the track.

H. The tennis ball drops into a plastic cup, attached to another pulley. The cup drops with the weight of the tennis ball.

I. On the other end of the pulley is a cardboard stopper, preventing a plastic clock from falling down. When the tennis ball falls into the cup in the previous step, the cardboard stopper is removed.

J. The plastic clock rolls down a small track and then glides on a string attached to a track on the counter and the ceiling.

K. The plastic clock hits the tennis ball causing the ball to roll down the track.

L.  At the end of the track, the tennis ball falls onto the switch (due to gravity) of the kettle and shuts it off.

Types of Energy: 

Mechanical – Books Falling

Mechanical Energy is the movement of objects or substances from one place to another.

Gravitational –  The Pulleys

Gravitational Energy is the energy an object has because of its position of height.

Thermal – The Kettle

Thermal Energy or heat energy, is the internal energy of a substance due to the vibration of atoms and molecules making up the substance.

Electrical – The Kettle

Electric Energy is the energy from the flow of electric charge.

Elastic – Rubber Band

Elastic Energy or stored mechanical energy is stored in an object by the application of force.

Energy Transformations: 

Elastic Energy ➡️Gravitational Energy

The rubber band hits the ball, causing it to roll down the track. The ball rolls down the track due to the energy emitted from the rubber band and gravity.

Mechanical Energy➡️Gravitational Energy

The mechanical energy of the cardboard stopper being pulled away causes the tennis ball to roll down the track and into the plastic cup. The tennis ball rolls down due to gravitational energy.

Gravitational Energy➡️Thermal Energy

The gravitational force of the tennis ball, causes it to land on the switch and turn on the Kettle, that is producing thermal energy.


Astronomy Wonder Assignment

Inquiry Question: How do eclipses affect life on earth and space in the long and short term?

To begin, we know that there are two types of eclipses: solar and lunar.

Solar eclipses occur when the Moon’s shadow sweeps across the Earth. It is when the Moon is close to or covering the Sun. There are 3 types of solar eclipses; total, partial and annular. These types of solar eclipses are only visible during the daytime. A lunar eclipse happens only when the Moon lies behind the Earth, opposite the Sun, and is fully lit. The Moon will either turn a red color or become greyer, depending on the type of lunar eclipse.

In-depth explanations of how these eclipses occur:

How Eclipses affect Life on Earth in the Short Term

Lunar eclipses have little short-term effect on life on earth as they are only visible at night-time and can go unrecognized. Lunar eclipses have no physical effect on people, but many have certain beliefs around eclipses and may take actions to fulfill their beliefs. In addition, lunar eclipses cause the pull of the Sun and the Moon to add to tidal effects when they are in-line with the Earth. Tides are especially high during this time, which can cause temporary problems for people on boats but is also an advantage for fishermen because it is easier to catch fish during this time. Lunar eclipses have no effect on animals.

Solar eclipses have no temporary effect on humans. However, a solar eclipse does have a great short-term impact on the circadian clocks of animals. Specifically, total solar eclipses. Total solar eclipses occur when the Moon fully covers the Sun for a full three minutes. During these three minutes, songbirds go quiet, farm animals lie down, crickets start chirping and bats begin hunting. Spiders are also known to dismantle their webs during the totality of the eclipse. This reaction occurs because the animals are reacting to nighttime. Animals will mistake the changes in light conditions with the change from day to nighttime and may begin doing their night/day time activities, depending on whether they are nocturnal animals or not. The masking effect comes into play during this situation. The masking effect explains that certain stimuli (i.e. the eclipse) can overrule normal behavior temporarily without affecting the internal clock and daily rhythms. Once the solar eclipse has terminated, animals will adjust and go back to their day time activities.

How Eclipses affect Life on Earth in the Long Term

Both lunar and solar eclipses have no effect on animals in the long-term. Although, solar eclipses can have a very big, permanent impact on a person’s life. It is important to never look directly at the Sun while the Sun is not in total eclipse. Looking directly at the sun can cause blindness as well as retinal burns. This exposure to such a strong light can cause damage or even destroy cells in the retina. This damage can be permanent and is painless. A few hours to a few days may pass after viewing the eclipse for you to notice that the damage has occurred. This damage can be prevented by wearing “eclipse-watching glasses”. These glasses are much darker than average sunglasses and protect the eyes well. Fortunately, animals do not tend to look at the Sun in their day-to-day life so therefore their eyes should not be at risk. Otherwise, there are no long-term effects on animals caused by solar eclipses.

Specialized Glasses for Watching Eclipses

How Eclipses affect Space in the Short Term

Solar eclipses have no effect on space in the short-term. On the other hand, total lunar eclipses produce two temporary changes in space. First, the temperature on the Moon plummets. The Moon goes from hot to cold very quickly because it is in Earth’s shadow (also known as Earth’s Umbra) and it is further away from the Sun. Normally, temperature changes on the Moon are slow and are spread out over the course of a lunar day. However, for the period of time that the Moon is in the Earth’s Umbra, the temperature on the Moon will drop. Some parts of the Moon may be hotter than others due to the Sun shining on one spot more than the other. Once the Moon is no longer in the Earth’s Umbra, the temperature on the Moon should normalize. Next, total lunar eclipses cause the Moon to turn red during the duration of the eclipse. This is a result of gas molecules in the Earth’s atmosphere bending the Sun’s light around the surface of the planet, allowing some of it to touch the Moon.

How Eclipses affect Space in the Long Term

Solar eclipses have no long-term effect on Space. Lunar eclipses do not cause permanent changes in Space either, however, as time passes, we may be no longer to see lunar eclipses in the future. This is because the Moon is slowly moving away from the Earth. It is getting about an inch to an inch and a half further away each year. It’s estimated that about in a billion years, the Moon will be too far away from Earth to completely cover the Sun.





Biotechnology and Genetics – Transgenic Animals/Plants

News Broadcast on Transgenic Animals and Plants – By Olivia, Samira, and Maya

Research Document (all research used):

Bibliography with Completed Citations:

1. Miao, Xiangyang. (2012) Recent Advances in the Development of New Transgenic Animal Technology. Research Gate  :

2. Wheeler, M. B. (2013) Transgenic Animals in Agriculture. Nature Education Knowledge :

3. Margawati, Endang Tri Ph.D. (2008) Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare. ActionBioScience :

4. Genetic Science Learning Center. (2013) Genetic Society. University of Utah :

5. Mills, Ameera. (2018) What Are Transgenic Animals? AnimalWised :

6. Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut. (1997) Genetically modified animal organs for human transplantation. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health:

7. National Blood Clot Alliance:

8. Marks, Lara; Myelnikov, Dmitriy (2015) What Is Biotechnology; Transgenic Animals. Cambridge University:


Data Visualization Assignment

Below I have included an image of my visualized data with the link to the original data website below it.

Percentage of 3rd Grade Children with Caries Experience in the U.S. between 1998 and 2017

Link to Data:

I chose to present my data in a poster to show the percentage of third-grade children with caries experience in the United States between 1998 and 2017. I made each tooth on the poster represent a state. Within each tooth, the state it represents is mentioned, as well and the percentage of third graders with caries experience in a specific year. From there, I matched the percentage of children with caries experience to the percentage of the tooth-colored grey. The greyer the tooth is, the more children in third grade have experienced caries in a certain state. The four teeth at the top of the poster with no grey, have no information given on caries experience on the website. Therefore, they are not colored at all. The background of my poster is red to represent the inside of the mouth. I believed that it was best to demonstrate this data in a poster because it is easy to read for my targeted audience. Since this is about caries experience in children, I believed that the poster would be the easiest way that children can read and interpret the data.


Core Competencies