Mass is how much matter is in a substance, and volume is how much space the substance takes up ( usually measured in L). Matter is anything with mass and volume. Mass + volume = matter!!! Simple. Chemical change is something that happens in matter. It is when two different substances are mixed or combined to create a new substance. Sometimes when the substances are mixed, they don’t create a new substance, but they do have some changes in appearance. That is called a Physical change. When you have one of the three states of matter ( liquid, solid or gas ), lets say “solid” and it turns into another state such as “liquid”, that is called change of state. The six possible changes of state are: solid to liquid = melting. liquid to solid = solidification. Solid to gas = sublimation. Gas to solid = deposition. Gas to liquid = condensation. liquid to gas = evaporation.
Matter is made up of a bunch of tiny particles, too small to see my the naked eye, or even with a microscope. There is space between the particles in every state of matter but the amount of space varies. In solid, liquid and gas, the particles move differently because of the space in between them. For a solid, there isn’t that much space between the particles so they can only vibrate. Liquid particles have more room to move around so they spread a part and slip past one another. This means they don’t hold their form like solids do, that allows them to take the shape of their container. Gas particles have lots of space between them. They are actually mostly empty space, allowing the to move freely. Don’t forget that all particles are constantly moving. The kinetic molecular theory describes how the kinetic energy (he energy of motion) changes. Physical properties are properties of matter that you can observe or measured.
This covers pretty much all of chapter 1.2 in the text book.