Industrial Revolution – Coal Industry Working Conditions Notes Worked from dark of the morning to the dark of night Many worked in the dark Whole families worked in the mines Even pregnant women would work underground because they needed money… Continue Reading →
English Revolution Significant Events Timeline Civil War 1625-1689 Causes: Charles did not rule according to law. Because of that, it was what laid the pavement for the other causes. Obtaining money without consent was already illegal, so that was just one of the instances. It didn’t help either that his advisers were unpopular with the people. If Charles only listened and worked alongside parliament, then there would’ve been no need to pass the grand remonstrance and lead to the invasion on the House of Commons. There may have been some situations where the parliament was at fault, but Charles’ illegal activities that spanned for quite a while, are what lead to the Civil War. Components: One of the most important components of the civil war was the battle of Naseby. Which is the battle that without, could’ve changed the outcome of the remaining war. This is where the Parliamentary army rendered the Royalists basically useless from any possible battles in the future completely destroying them. The next component would have to be the Solemn League and Covenant. This is when Parliament made peace negotiations with the Scottish army but under the conditions that England accepts Presbyterianism. Even though this idea was opposed by certain individuals in the military, this aid was quite helpful in the ensuing battles. The final component would have to be the New Model Army. It may sound a little odd but the reformation and reorganization of the military was something that leads them through many battles, as they were more disciplined and trained much harder than the Royalists. This single change with the army made them much more stronger than the royalists even with less men they can still overcome them easily. Consequences: Out of all the consequences that formed, both from Charles I and Parliament’s feud, the most important consequence that was triggered was the initial trial of Charles I in 1649. That trial is what lead to the execution of Charles I as well as the decision for parliament to establish a new government and remove the monarchy, making England a republic. Without the trial, Charles’ execution would never have been done. And the decision for a republic wouldn’t have been possible while Charles still reined. Cromwell and the Republic 1649-1661 Components: There were a handful of components that happened during this time but the two that left a heavy or lasting impact, was to be when the instrument of government appointed Cromwell as Lord Protector, and when General Monck recalled parliament and invited Charles II to be king. The effects of Cromwell becoming Lord Protector meant he got all if not more power than the king which lead to a landslide of disastrous events. These events included The Puritan Commission in where they persecuted any protestant dissenters including Catholics and Anglicans. This also included the Blue Laws which people really disliked. The laws prohibited theaters, horse races, cock fighting, wrestling, the Laws included the disapproval of music and art with only some exceptions, and the laws heavily enforced Puritan religion. General Monck decided that they needed to bring back Parliament and a Monarch before England resulted into anarchy. This was due to the peoples serious dislike of the military dictatorship Cromwell lead. Monck, with his army, arrived in London in 1660. This is where he called for a newly elected Parliament and also Where parliament decided to invite Charles II to claim the Throne as the new monarch. Charles II and Restoration of the Monarchy 1661-1685 Components: The most important component during the restoration of monarchy was that they established Charles II specifically a constitutional monarch, where he must follow the law and govern alongside parliament while at the same time his powers were limited. This component was because the people were concerned of the lack of parliament, and they were very displeased of the previous military dictatorship and they also extremely disliked the current set of Blue Laws. The Blue Laws were eventually taken down by Charles II several months after he took place on the throne. 18 years later the test act was passed by parliament. James II and the Glorious Revolution 1685-1689 Components: James II was not very popular starting off with, he was a catholic, and he violated the Test Act months later after being appointed. This lead Parliament to another important component. Seeking out James’ daughter and husband, Mary and William to take the throne instead, as King and Queen and they were invited in June of 1688. A few months following the invitation, William invades England in hopes of claiming the throne, realizing he no longer has support from the army or parliament, King James II abdicates the throne and he leaves England retreating to France. This allowed Mary and William to ascent to the throne and people recognize this event as the Glorious Revolution and was the first time the Monarch was chosen rather than hereditary right…. Continue Reading →
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