Neuron Communication

Neurons are tiny specialized cells that make up a human’s nervous system and brain. Similar to other other cells in the human body, neurons possess a nucleus, and other organelles, but these nerve cells complete a more particular task.

A neurons purpose is to transport certain messages and information throughout the body. These reports contribute to tasks being done both internally and externally. In a human, there are three specific types of neurons (motor neurons, sensory neurons, and interneurons) that have their own specialized tasks. Motor neurons are responsible for the contraction of muscles and glands. Sensory neurons detects external stimulus and can act on that stimuli by transferring the detection message to motor neurons. Interneurons communicate with both motor or sensory neurons and send the information to the brain.

 

Although these three neurons complete three different tasks, they all operate in similar ways. Every neuron possesses a dendrite, this receives messages from either a sensory receptor or another nerve cell. The message is then sent through the cell body to the axon, which sends that information to the next dendrite of a neuron. The nucleus plays a key roll in the operation as it provides that energy needed to complete a transfer of information. Some neurons may include myelin sheath; sheets of fatty tissue that wraps around the axon that provide both protection and help to speed of the transfer process.

(Black: Sensory neuron, Yellow: Motor neuron, Orange: Interneuron)

When a message is being transferred through an axon, a specific technique is used, this is called Action Potential. This is a abrupt electrical impulse that moves down the axon. These impulses are caused by the trading of negative and positive ions (sodium and potassium) through the membrane of the axon. Action potential requires four different phases. This first phase is resting potential, when more positive ions sit outside the axon membrane giving the internal axon a negative charge, this means that the negatively charged centre is “polarized”. A certain threshold is required to start the process of action potential and when this stimulus has been given, depolarization happens. Depolarization causes the membrane of the axon to open, allowing positive sodium ions to enter. After this, the inside of the axon must become negatively charged again, this is called repolarization. This cause the membrane of the axon to once agian open allowing the positive potassium ions to escape. Repolarization causes the next segment of the axon to start the depolarization process. The progression of depolarization and depolarization sends action potential down the axon.

When the message has reached the end of the axon, the message must be transferred. A synapse is the structure that allows this transfer of information to occur. Axons of nerve cells have “axon terminal buttons” which are placed very close to a dendrite, without touching. The space between the two branches is called synaptic gap and this is where the information is relocated. The messages are held in synaptic vesicles which burst when the meet the end of the axon button, releasing neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap. These neurotransmitters then attach themselves to the receiving neuron (dendrite). When the message is received by the dendrite, the message is either classified as excitatory or inhibitory. Excitatory is when the information stimulates action potential on the new neuron and inhibitory does the opposite but restraining the action potential.

Neurotransmitters fit into the receptor like a “lock and key”, but sometimes certain chemicals can interfere with transfer of neurotransmitters, these are called NT disruptors. NT disruptors can either be agonist or antagonist. Agonist disruptors not only act as neurotransmitters, but boost the action of it. Antagonist disruptors block the binding of neurotransmitters to receptors all together.

 

 

Citations:

Astrologer Parshant Kapoor. Astrologer Parshant Kapoor, astrologerparshant.wordpress.com/category/motor-neuron-disease-treatment-by-ayurveda/.

Jalan, Mahak. “What Would Happen If Our Neurotransmitters Stopped Working?” Science ABC, Science ABC, 19 Sept. 2018, www.scienceabc.com/humans/what-is-a-synapse-defnition-neurotransmitter-how-do-they-work.html.

Supernatural Riverside – Coho Salmon

Citations for SetBC:

 

National Geographic Society. “Endangered Species.” National Geographic Society, 9 Oct. 2012, www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/endangered-species/.

 

“Coho Salmon – Species at Risk.” Species at Risk, www.speciesatriskbc.ca/.

 

“Salmon Hatchery.” Hyde Creek Watershed Society, www.hydecreek.org/.

 

“Salmon Biodiversity.” Watershed Watch, 25 Feb. 2011, www.watershed-watch.org/issues/salmon.

 

Fisheries and Oceans Statistical Services. “Coho Salmon (Interior Fraser River).” Government of Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Statistical Services, 19 Dec. 2016, www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/species-especes/profiles-profils/salmon-coho-saumon-eng.html

 

NOAA. “Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus Kisutch).” NOAA Fisheries, 21 Jan. 2015, www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/fish/coho-salmon.html

 

“Threats  To  Coho  Salmon.” EEP, 13 Apr. 1997, eweb.4j.lane.edu/article.php?-recid=91

What Darwin Never Knew

After exploring the Galapagos islands many years ago, Charles Darwin made important discoveries that would change the world of science forever. His expedition found that there were several organisms that settled on different islands were the same animal, only they had their own unique characteristics. For example, birds known as finches have different beaks on each island. Darwin theorized that these beaks were tools for feeding on the resources that their specific island contained. Finches adapted to their certain environment, evidence of natural selection. Natural selection is when an organism changes to improve survival, but before the finches could have changed they would have had to have been the same bird. Darwin believed that every organism came from a common descent, meaning that animals that could look nothing alike would be related. There was no way of proving his theories at the time, until the discovery of DNA. The discovery of the macromolecule proved that animals do indeed evolve. DNA codes what we look like and who we are, whether we are a fish or a human. According to DNA and scientific research fish and humans have common ancestors. When an embryo, humans have the beginning of what seems to be gills. Over time the gill-ice structure turns into the small ears inside our ears. Diversity is made by mutation of the DNA, without mutation every organism would stay the same. This information has advanced scientific research very much and will hopefully lead to many new discoveries in the future.

DOAS Monologue

I am a woman who works hard to provide for my family, but gets nothing in return. I am treated like a servant, and for some reason, I put up with it. My support for Willy seems to be ineffective, and now I fight to keep him alive. No one helps me… help him. I know that I have potential and that I can be successful, but my life is spent in that house, where I am invisible. Family always comes first, but I never do.

Lord of The Flies – Morality Podcast

“Morality.” AllAboutPhilosophy.org, www.allaboutphilosophy.org/morality.htm.

  • “Author C.S. Lewis are: (1) to ensure fair play and harmony between individuals; (2) to help make us good people in order to have a good society; and (3) to keep us in a good relationship with the power that created us”.
  • “Those rules are the boys personal laws”.

Dr. Wendy James, Ph.D., www.drwendyjames.com/biography/

  • “one dog may bark at you but it is more likely that the pack will attack you”.

“Why We Comply.” Conformity and Group Mentality, www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lumbert.removed.

  • “In a group setting people are more likely to do things that they would not usually do…”
  • teenagers tend change their opinion just to fit into a crowd”

James, Wendy. Lord of The Flies Interview. 8 Nov. 2017

 

“Lord of the Flies” – Island Description

1.) Site where Ralph and Piggy find the conch

“little breezes crept over the polished waters beneath the haze of heat. When these breezes reached the platform the palm fronds would whisper, so that spots of blurred sunlight slid over their bodies or moved like bright, winged things in the shade” (Golding 17-18).

2.) Beach

“The shore was fledged with palm trees. These stood or leaned or reclined against the light and their green feathers were a hundred feet up in the air” (Golding 10).

3.) Platform

“Here the beach was interrupted abruptly by the square motif of the landscape; a great platform of pink granite thrust up uncompromisingly through forest and terrace and sand and lagoon to make a raised jetty four feet high” (Golding 13).

4.) Fruit Trees

“He picked his way up the scar, passed the great rock where Ralph had
climbed on the first morning, then turned off to his right among the trees.
He walked with an accustomed tread through the acres of fruit trees” (Golding 77).

5.) Fire

“we must make smoke on top of the mountain. We must make a fire” (Golding 51).

6.) Lagoon

“banked sand inside the lagoon so that there was a long, deep pool
in the beach” (Golding 14).

7.) Stream

“[while on the mountain, Jack says] and bathing water in that little stream along there” (Golding 47).

8.) Island shape

“It was roughly boat-shaped: humped near this end with behind them the jumbled descent to the shore” (Golding 38).

9.) Pig Trails

“They were in the beginnings of the thick forest, plonking with weary feet on a track, when they heard the noises—squeakings—and the hard strike of hoofs on a path. As they pushed forward the squeaking increased till it became a frenzy. They found a piglet caught in a curtain of creepers…” (Golding 40).

10.) Coral Reef

“the white surf flinked on a coral reef, and beyond that the open sea was dark blue” (Golding 10).