- Clearcutting & Silviculture// disadvantages- expose site to erosion, may not be suitable for wildlife species/ structurally diverse habitats, increase mass wasting, exacerbate adverse environmental conditions for regeneration, prevent full growth/ yield potential for trees, not visually appealing, not suited for shade tolerant species
advantages- uniform crop, easier and efficient operations, have lower costs for forestry activities, easily accommodate highly specialized equipment for harvesting and preparation, avoid damage to regeneration, provide a means to most rapidly achieve a free growing plantation, may allow easier control of insect and diseases, easily allow for amelioration of site/soil, enhance worker safety
Selective Logging// disadvantages- slow, doesn’t produce a lot of volume, limited marketplace, permit times are short (four to five years), marking future pods with tape so they can be found easily only when to log,
Advantages- takes patches of land/pods, only selecting high quality trees, low cost, allow trees to keep growing until a marker for them comes available, marking future pods with tape so they can be found easily only when to log, safety to fallers,
- HOW SUSTAINABLE IS BC’S FORESTRY INDUSTRY??????
According to BBC NEWS ‘Canada’s search for sustainable logging’, if BC continues to use the method of hell-logging, it is more sustainable because it is less disruptive to the forest. However, it is more expensive so unless there is more investment in this method, the forest industry will be minimally sustainable. Clearcutting is not efficient because it does not allow for natural regeneration which is what the forest industry should be prioritizing, yet it’s a worse method for wildlife unless they make opening small enough so much light doesn’t get in. However, stopping logging may disrupt the current sustainability but it may get worse if it continues. “Stopping logging in the Fraser Valley would have huge implications for a large number of people; so those kinds of decisions don’t happen just because we have signed a rather general international convention.” This indicates that it may be sustainable for the time being because without it, there would be complications. Based off the article, ‘Canada’s Rainforests under threat’, it becomes very clear that our methods are damaging large amounts of rainforest, salmon watershed, and habitats for threatened species. Large habitats and several old growth forests are at risk in BC because the harmful methods of our forest industry. ‘65% of the most important ecosystems at risk of logging and other forms of development.’ ‘75% of old-growth forests unprotected from logging and other forms of development.’ This indicates the forest industry is not as sustainable due to our current methods. Continuing to plant more trees, find more sustainable methods are helpful to better protect old growth forests and groups of wildlife. In ‘Silviculture Facts’, brushing, spacing, pruning and fertilizing can be key factors in making BC’s forest industry much more sustainable. Though it is sustainable now to a certain point, it will cause damage in the near future which will be extremely difficult to recover from economically and environmentally. BC’s Forest Industry can definitely become more sustainable if certain things are changed and others are invested in.
Maya B, Trina K, Sairi T
April 17, 2018
Mr. George Heyman
Environment and Climate Change Strategy
Dear Mr. Heyman,
I am writing to you in hopes that you will change the fracking system here in BC. According to an article that discusses the pros and cons of fracking by a conserve energy blog, there is a huge risk of water pollution. This is very dangerous to the residents and animals of northern BC because contaminated water can lead to multiple problems health wise. If chemicals seep into reservoirs, millions of people who are drinking the water would be affected. Too many people would be exposed to toxic chemicals and global warming would increase because more carbon dioxide would be released into the air, and methane concentrations are seventeen times higher in eater wells near fracking sites. Although there are benefits, the risks are too alarming. Another article by Carleton that I found highlights the damage that can be caused including earthquakes and soil and oil spill contamination like the 1,000 oil spills that happened in North Dakota in 2011 due to drilling waste.
I hope I have encouraged you to limit fracking in BC. Please consider the environmental risk of this activity and the amount of risks one must take in order to prevent such disasters from happening are in your hands. Thank you for understanding.
Riverside Secondary School student
Chemical weathering > dissolution
- Weathering is the disintegration or decomposition of rocks in places near the earth’s surface or one it, and erosion is the removal and movement of organic matter and rock debris. Deposition is when the drop of energy slow down the transporting agent till it deposits some of its rock materials.
- Weathering- Frost shattering> water goes into rock cracks and breaks them apart or freezes into ice crystals and expand. Erosion- bodies of water transports water from one place to another. Decomposition- After being transported by water, water helps create clay and deltas.
- Negatives- causes landslides, floods, rock slides, building breakage, foundation breakage… Positives- can flatten land so its easier to live in certain areas, discover gold and other minerals, deltas, etc.
- Physical- stepping on rocks, crushing them. Chemical- added CO2 in the air makes floods, acid rain, mining.
- Physical weathering can break down things to create more surface area for chemical weathering.
- A rock cannot be frost shattered if it isn’t cold enough for water to freeze, and it can’t be expanded thermally if it’s not warm enough.
- Springs need to wet the rocks at the base of cliffs. No time/ very difficult for water to be evaporated from salt so crystals cant be formed.
- Since it’s cooler in southern Canada, there is more likely to be physical weathering whereas it’s hotter in tropical areas, so there is more likely chemical weathering. Cooler areas make physical weathering faster.