What Water Sterilizing Technique is Most Efficient.



I hypothesize that boiling will be way safer and more efficient. Boiling beats the tablets in time and being cleaner. From the research, I have done the tablets are not always guaranteed to be 100% clean. As well as boiling. A risk is that Purifying tablets do not 100% cleanse all of the bacteria in water so when we conclude the experiment we will not be drinking the water. Boiling water can take up to 15 minutes on average to kill everything. while the tablets take 30 minutes to start working. There are a bacteria named cryptosporidium which causes people to be ill and diarrhea. which is why my group and I believe boiling is more effective. The reason I believe boiling is more effective because it takes half the time and still takes out way more bacteria in the water.


For our experiment, we will be boiling water and using water purification tablets to compare which is a cleaner way to sterilize water to make it clean enough to drink. We will first use a 2 litre pop bottle to make up the shell of our filter for both the sterilizers (You cannot boil or use the tablets without using a filter to take the dirt out and other loose items like bugs) Then we will put a paper towel in to prevent the sand from falling out the bottle. On top of the paper, we add sand to be the base of our filter. Then we put charcoal on top of the sand to add an extra layer of filtration. We will add another sand layer and then another charcoal layer. And to finish, we add a gravel/pebble layer on the top. Finally, we add the dirty swamp water and wait around 30-45 minutes for all the water to come out. After waiting the water will all come out and be ready. We pour the filtered water into a separate cup and add the water purification tablets and mix for 10 minutes. When 10 minutes Is over, we let it sit for 40 minutes. After 40 minutes it should be clear and clean.

When we constructed the water filter we put a paper towel at the tip to allow water to exit but not gravel, charcoal, and sand. as you can see the Fresca bottle is upside down because that is how we built the contraption with a large hole at the top to insert our ingredients. To captivate our water when it falls below. We repeated this process 4 times for each test. The total amount of time it took to filter all of the water was around an hour and a half. We noticed that before we filtered the water there was a tiny invertebrate in the water we could not capture the water as it was too small. The filtering process was the most boring time of our project but very important.



When we concluded our filtering process we were finally ready to begin sterilizing. We had a bowl full of the water for the tablets and we put the tablets into the bowl and mixed for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes we waited 40-50 minutes to see a change in the water clarity. it started to look a bit cleaner. Less yellow than it looked an hour ago. When we boiled the water it looked very yellow and didn’t look safe to drink as the tablet water looked like it was way better and cleaner. When we grabbed the results we noticed that the boiled water was, in fact, cleaner than the tablet water. despite the yellow horrid colour, it was cleaner.

After we filtered and sterilized the water we used water test strips that were used to test the water when we went out as a class to oxbow pond. The strips test for carbonate, hardness, pH, nitrate, and nitrite. the strips were fairly accurate as we used an electronic pH tester to see the real results for pH. The test strip above is testing the boiled water and the one on the bottom tested the tablet water. This was a decently dangerous experiment. Boiling the water could burn us if we were to spill the water. Also if we handle the water and we consume food and get some stuff on the food we can get super ill. Solomon my partner was dangerously close to the thorns when collecting the water if he were to get stabbed by the thorns he could fall in the water and that could mean he could be stuck in the mud. But that’s just the worst that could have happened both Solomon, ilia and I did not sustain any injuries.


This is the finished product. on the right, we have the boiling water and on the left, we have the purified tablets

Some ethical, cultural environmental issues are how people around the world get clean water in sub-Saharan Africa people don’t have clean water. Purification tablets make sure you have decently clean water but boiling promises you 100% that all of the bacteria are wiped out. The only problem is boiling requires way more equipment and is not easy to set up while the tablets only require a second to set up.

This bar graph shows the chemicals that were in the water. Only the visible ones of course that were identified using the water strips. pH aka potential hydrogen is the measure of acidity in the water. pH is only ranged from 0-14. But it is recommended you only drink water within 6.5-8.5 pH and both of our tests fall in the line with that barrier. More pH equals more alkaline and less pH equals less acidity. Water hardness indicates the amount of calcium and magnesium salts in the water. The hardness for the boiled water was only 60 as the purification tablets double the hardness. And finally, carbonate. Carbonate is the measure of bicarbonate and carbonate anions essentially they both relate to the measure of alkalinity. Having average alkalinity will mean that it will destroy acids making the pH less acidic.

For our experiment, the boiled water had (8) pH which is a healthy number but seriously close to the barrier. The tablets had a super low number (6.5) pH is on the edge and if it we’re to go down it would be unhealthy to consume. (60) Hardness which isn’t too bad it is considered pretty soft water. (120)Hardness for the tablets. it is high meaning this water is super hard. And lastly, carbonate. both tests scored a (120) for carbonate which is decently okay. Both tests did pretty well on the water and none were dangerously unhealthy.


Looking through our research and data, Boiling water is a better purifying technique, Meaning our hypothesis was correct. In the graph boiled water had a higher pH and maintained hard water which is safe to drink. The hardness of the purification tablet was better than the boiling. And having a higher alkaline level is safer. One mistake that interfered with the experiment was our water tester. The water tester had if it would work was able to test how clean the water was giving a number to define the level of contaminants in the water. When we used the faulty tester it said the tablet water was highly contaminated which we knew wasn’t true so we had to switch to water testing strips to see a more plausible result. If we wanted to improve the results we would add more material in the filter to filter more of the water and even do it 3 extra times. As a result, this was a very interesting and fun experiment to perform with my group members as we thought boiling would be the better alternative and cleaner for those in need.

SMART Goals Reflection

My goal for reducing my ecological footprint was turning off the tap as I’m brushing my teeth, and to take 5-minute showers instead of 20 minutes. I did achieve my goal. I would remind myself every single time I brushed my teeth to turn off the tap to save that bit of water for the better.  I also completed the shower goal I used my phone to time how long I have in the shower. The most challenging part was adapting to the 5-minute shower. On the first day, I went super fast and had a minute to spare but on the second day, I was around 20 seconds late because I still had soap on me. I tried my best to complete it and I did it. Next time I would challenge myself to 5 minute cold showers. I will continue turning off my tap when brushing because it is a simple task which I can do. About the showers, I will try to cut my time down to 10 minutes.

Aquatic Adventures

Our class went out to the Coquitlam River and Oxbow pond and we were testing the water and catching invertebrate. For the Coquitlam River, the tests were air temperature, water temperature, pH, Nitrate, Nitrite, Hardness, and carbonate. The air temp was (11°c). the water temp was (10°c). pH was (6.2). nitrate (0). nitrite (0). hardness (30). carbonates (0). there has been little to no rain in the days we went to the river the wind was a light breeze. the water did not smell like anything the colour was clear. You could see no turbidity in the water the invertebrates we found in the water were only water treaders AKA (Mesovelioidea). We caught a good 25 of those but nothing else. all the proof shows that the Coquitlam river is quite healthy the water is clean low chemicals in the water look clear and doesn’t smell. Now Oxbow Pond is a whole different story it had a very brown colour. The water had a smell like rotten eggs and sewage. The mud can get you stuck because it’s like quicksand but mud that isn’t as deadly. for my group, we had somewhat messed up results they were completely different. For air temp, we had average or normal results for the temperatures our average for air was (15.5°) and water was (12.5°) now our messed up results were our pH, Nitrate, nitrite, hardness, and carbonate. for pH, we had (6). other groups had (7) and (6.5) which isn’t horrible. Nitrate levels for us were (o) other groups had (20) that is a huge difference. nitrite wasn’t that messed we had (0) when others had 0.5 still a big difference. the water hardness spiked for our group we had a (60) when others only had (30) we doubled the average group’s number. Carbonate was again double with (80) and the average was (35) we ended up only 1 species of invertebrates water treaders we also found a couple of baby rainbow trouts and several water treaders but not anything else. In conclusion, the river was quite healthy as for the Pond it was murky, disgusting and smelly meaning not healthy for most organisms.


This is an unidentified bug that was found in the water from the oxbow pond.
This is one of the water treaders we found in the Coquitlam River.
This is a dead water treader who lost both his back legs.
This is another unidentified bug who sadly died in the water upon catching it.
this is Coquitlam river and in the background is the bridge that goes over the river

Digital Footprint.

  1. How might your digital footprint affect your future opportunities?                                                                                   If I was a very toxic person and would always post offensive tweets an employer could easily just google your twitter account and decide if they want to hire you. I could also have a very nice and not toxic twitter and post nice things about people then maybe the employer will decide that this is a very nice guy and should be hired
  2. Describe at least three strategies that you can use to keep your digital footprint appropriate and safe                      1. Don’t post offensive or inappropriate things.                                                                                                                      2. Keep away from commenting rude things on other posts.                                                                                                3. Be nice to people to make your digital footprint full of positive messages instead of toxic mean messages
  3. I would always make your footprint positive like accomplishments that you are really proud of and not if you had done a crime and that would show up.


Will Humans Ever Evolve Into A Superior Human.

                                            Will Humans Ever Evolve into Superior Humans in The Future?

There is the theory that future humans 1 million years later will have way larger brains. Also, some theory’s that we will merge with machines, I believe we will evolve again. Humans have also added 3-4 inches to the average height since 1800. I believe we can evolve again. Only toddlers 11,000 years ago could digest milk. An adult could not digest milk. It would not digest and make them bloated, have diarrhea, cramping and nausea. Humans in the future will be way smarter than we are now. The average future human will have the knowledge a genius scientist has right now. Humans can live forever if we find out how to upload the human body to an android. That would mean we wouldn’t age. We also need to find a way to upload our minds with all our memories. Which is Extremely hard. It is possible but the brain is just way too complex to just simply upload it. We haven’t even conducted 1 brain transplant. Which says a lot if we want to do something that hard. I really think humans in 1 million years will be tall huge brained cyborgs with mechanical organs to live for a much longer time or even forever.

Website: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2017/04/evolution-genetics-medicine-brain-technology-cyborg/ , https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/sep/21/human-instinct-why-we-are-unique ,



This video is not supported by research by scientists but is still a great example of what humans might look like.                                                                         |                                                                                                                                                                                                                   \/

Credit: Gratisography