New France

Champlain and Québec

In 1608 Samuel de Champlain, considered the founder of New France, erected a habitation (building) at Québec. He continued Cartier’s dream of finding an opening to the Indies, pursued the commercial interests of businessmen in France, his sponsors, and followed the king’s wishes. The settlement responded to economic demands: go out to the fur-rich areas, forge close contact with suppliers and try to obtain the right of exploitation. The scale of the operation made it necessary to form private companies.

 

Here it’s a drawing of the habitation at Québec made by Champlain.

http://i2.wp.com/www.lookbackward.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/quebec1a.jpeg?resize=300%2C251

 

In here it shows a battle with Champlain and the Alguonquin against the Iroquois.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/DefeatOfIroquoisByChamplain.jpeg

 

In this image it shows a picture of the coureurs de bois travelling to explore the Great Lakes region.

http://blogdev.learnquebec.ca/societies/wp-content/uploads/sites/10/nggallery/new-france-1645/1153.jpg

 

Here it shows Champlain forced to surrender in 1629 by the English.

 

 

Jesuits and Huron

Between 1634 and 1650, the Jesuits established missions in New France along the Saint Lawrence River. They soon moved deeper into the colony’s territory in order to live with and convert the local Huron population. During this time, however, their missionary efforts were fraught with disappointment and frustration. In other colonies, such as in Latin America, the Jesuit missions had found a more eager and receptive audience to Christianity, the result of a chaotic atmosphere of violence and conquest. But in New France, where French authority and coercive powers did not extend far and where French settlement was sparse, the Jesuits found conversion far more difficult. Nevertheless, the French missionary settlements were integral to maintaining political, economic, and military ties with the Huron and other native peoples in the region. The contact between the two had important consequences in lifestyle, social and cultural attitudes, as well as in spiritual practice. The French Jesuits and Huron found they had to negotiate their religious, social, and cultural differences in order to accommodate one another.

 

This picture shows the Wendake with Champlain in a boat travelling the rivers and lakes of New France.

http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/hist/biography/images/champlain-chro-gbayb.jpg

 

In this image it shows workers building the church at the Jesuit mission of Sainte-Marie among the Hurons.

http://www.ameriquefrancaise.org/media-7530/ste_marie_hurons_12.jpg

 

In here it shows a picture of how the Iroquois attacked the Wendake in 1649 to 1650.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/93/Huron_Feast_of_the_Dead_by_J.-F._Lafitau_in_Moeurs_des_sauvages_am%C3%A9riquains_II_1724.JPG

 

 

Royal Government

The Governor of New France was the viceroy of the King of France in North America. A French noble, he was appointed to govern the colonies of New France, which included Canada, Acadia and Louisiana. The residence of the Governor was at the Chateau St-Louis in the capital of Quebec City. Acadia, Louisiana, and the towns of Trois-Rivières and Montreal had their own particular governors. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the highest positions in New France were that of Governor and Lieutenant-General, which were often held by the same person. The Governor then had responsibilities over both military and civil affairs in the colonies. With the new royal administration of 1663, the title of Governor General was given to the person responsible for the military and diplomatic relations. The administration of justice, police, and finance was given to the Intendant, who presided over the Sovereign Council. The Governor General answered to the French Secretary of State of the Navy and the Controller General of Finance.

 

The bishop of New France is responsible for religious affairs.

http://www.versdemain.org/images/articles/2008/Mgr-de-Laval-arrivee.jpg

 

In here it shows Jean Talon telling the women If they like their home.

https://thediscoverblog.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/c011925k.jpg

 

The mercantilism was a popular idea in Europe in the 16th century because they could sell some items to other countries of the world, they were not permitted to sell their raw materials to anyone but the home country.

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Coureurs de bois

A coureur des bois (French pronunciation: ​[kuʁœʁ de bwa]) or coureur de bois (French pronunciation: ​[kuʁœʁ də bwa], runner of the woods; plural: coureurs de bois) was an independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian woodsman who traveled in New France and the interior of North America. They ventured into the woods usually to trade various European items for furs, and along the way they learned the trades and practices of the Native people. These expeditions were fuelled by the beginning of the fur trade in the North American interior. Trade began with coat beaver, but as the market grew coureurs de bois were trapping and trading prime beavers to be felted in Europe.

 

The Coureurs de bois travelled to get more fur and explore the Great Lakes Region.

http://myriverside.sd43.bc.ca/kyeo-2014/files/2015/01/Fur_traders_in_canada_1777-pwtd6k.jpg

 

La Verendrye was a group of men who went west across the prairies and had established many trading posts.

http://www.biographi.ca/bioimages/original.9253.jpg

 

This is a map of how the Coureurs de bois travelled and traded.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Western_New_France,_1688.jpg

 

 

Seigneury

The seigneurial system was an institutional form of land distribution established in New France in 1627 and officially abolished in 1854. In New France, 80 per cent of the population lived in rural areas governed by this system of land distribution and occupation. In principle, the seigneur granted a piece of land to a family under a royalty system. The family would engage in subsistence farming to meet most of their food, heating, and shelter needs.
The seigneurial system was based on the feudal system, which involved the personal dependency of censitaires (tenants) on the seigneur. In New France the similarities ended with occupation of land and payment of certain dues. The tenant was normally referred to as a habitant. The Compagnie des Cent-Associés, which was granted ownership and legal and seigneurial rights over New France, from the Arctic to Florida, also obtained the right to allocate the land to its best advantage. The land was therefore granted as fiefs and seigneuries to the most influential colonists who, in turn, granted tenancies.

 

In this image it shows habitants having a good time playing cards, smoking tobacco, and drinking beer.

http://www.gutenberg.ca/ebooks/munro-seigneurs/munro-seigneurs-00-h-dir/images/farmhouse.jpg

 

All seigneuries had a church nearby, and the Catholic priest was a very familiar authority figure in the community.

https://www.google.ca/search?q=church+new+france&rlz=1C9BKJA_enCA674CA674&hl=en-US&prmd=imnv&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi-oqOqvarNAhUL0mMKHdRQAP8Q_AUIBygB&biw=1024&bih=748#imgrc=2yvJNqRJi7k87M%3A

 

In the early days, very few French women came to New France, the fur traders were encouraged to marry First Nations women.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Arrival_of_the_Brides_-_Eleanor_Fortescue-Brickdale.png

 

Here it shows a map of how the seigneurial system worked in New France.

http://myriverside.sd43.bc.ca/frishtap-2014/files/2015/01/seigneury-1cdn0dz.jpg

 

 

Imperialism and Conflict-France vs England

When the British came to New France, they decided to take over the French Imperialism and Conflict, this lead to a battle were the English and the French are battling for power and who takes all North America.

 

Here it shows a battle of the English defeating the French between imperialism and conflict.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/The_Defeat_of_the_French_Fireships_attacking_the_British_Fleet_at_Anchor_before_Quebec.jpg

 

This is a picture of the seven years war between France and Engalnd. The Seven Years’ War, also known as the French and Indian War, began in 1756 when the fighting between French and colonists merged into a European conflict involving France, Austria, and Russia against Prussia and Britain. The French and Indian war took place in the American theater of the global Seven Years War; the Treaty of Paris marked the end of the Seven Years War in 1763.

http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2015/04/hith-10-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-french-and-indian-war-E.jpeg

 

The Acadians were devastated that they had to migrate by force, 11 000 Acadians were expelled and about 1700 died at sea.

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A map of the Imperialism and conflict in New France.

http://www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museum-of-new-france/files/2011/12/New-France_2_4_2_-Map-of-the-new-discoveries.jpg

 

 

Seven Years War/ French and Indian War

The Seven Years’ War was fought from 1756-63. The first war to span the globe, it was chiefly fought between Britain, Prussia and Hanover, against France, Austria, Sweden, Saxony, Russia and Spain. France and Britain were especially hostile enemies, waging war on land and sea in Europe and in colonies around the world. Britain hoped to destroy France’s navy and merchant fleet, take possession of its colonies and remove France as a commercial rival. Much of the fighting took place in North America, where the European powers clashed over possession of their colonies. The North American theatre is also known as the French and Indian War.

 

British and French wanted control of the fur trade in the area west of the Rocky Mountains and in the Ohio Valley.

http://adventuresinnewfrance.weebly.com/uploads/9/4/0/1/9401712/509187517.jpg

 

British and French wanted control of the fishing areas in the Atlantic.

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Here it shows the death of General Wolfe in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Benjamin_West_005.jpg/1024px-Benjamin_West_005.jpg

 

In this image it shows the British surrounding Montreal cities, the British had won the Seven Years War.

http://viedechateaucanadien.weebly.com/uploads/2/1/1/0/21100846/971870979.jpg

 

The Treaty of Paris is the consequence that ended the Seven Years War.

http://www.treatyofpariscenter.org/treaty-of-paris-signature.jpg