Neurons all have similar elements in their structures. They have dendrites that receive information from other neutrons and sensory receptors, they have a nucleus that provides energy for the neutron to carry out its functions, a cell body is the cells life support centre. There is an axon that carries neurons messages to other body areas, a myethlin sheath that covers the axon of some neutrons and helps speed neural impulses and there is the terminal branches of axon that forms junction with other cells. Neurons are cells that transmit and process information from the nervous system.
Action potential sweeps along the axon membrane away from the cell body. It’s a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon and is caused by the movement of positive ions in and out axon.
There is 4 steps in during Action Potential. It starts with resting potential. This is when there are more positive ions outside the axon, and the negative axon has a negative charge. Then there’s depolarization with incoming messages thats stimulates a section of the axon that channels in the membrane opening axon to allow Na+ ions to enter. Repolarization is when the channel is open allowing K+ ions to exit the axon and the charge returns to normal and then the next segment of depolarization begins.
Synapse is a chemical signal being sent to another neutron in the network. Synapse has a tiny separation between neurone, ends of dendrites of the receiving neutron, has tips of terminal branches of axon.
When the action potential reaches the axon terminal, it causes synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap. Neurotransmitters diffuse through the gap and bind receptors or receiving neuron. Neurotransmitters are deactivated by enzymes and reabsorbed by axon terminal. Neurotransmitter messages is received as either excitatory or inhibitory. If it is excitatory it stimulates action potential on receiving neuron and if it’s inhibitory, it represses action potential on receiving neuron.