Thermos Challenge

Prototype testing procedure:

1. Heat up 150ml of water in a beaker on a hot plate set to high and heat it up to around 100 °c.
2. Take the initial temperature of the hot water as soon as it poured into the prototype thermos. Record the temperature and quickly place the cap on the thermos.
3. Leave the water for 20 minutes and observe any changes in the heat on the outside of the thermos.
4. Remove the cap and record the temperature of the water. Calculate the final and initial temperature difference.
5. Note any flaws and possible improvements that could be made to the design.
6. Make improvements based on the notes and repeat the procedure with the next prototype.
The idea behind this prototype is to reduce heat loss through heat transfer, so we use a lot of materials that have less thermal conductively, so the conduction of heat through the contact between the hot water and the material becomes weaker and slower.

Prototype #1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Materials list and cost

 

 

 

 

Data:

 

 

 

Pros:

1.Pretty cheap. Cheapest one in all three prototype.

Cons:

1.The appearance is simple, not attractive.

2.The lid (ballon) is not easy to take off, it takes time and will loss the heat by Conduction.

Progression:

– Improve external insulation to reduce heat loss.

– Try another material to make the lid.

– Add decoration to make themes look better.

Because sand has strong thermal conductivity and is easy to absorb thermal energy, we add sand between the cups, so that the sand absorbs the heat of water, and plays a role of heat insulation through the sand. On the other hand, due to the heat loss caused by convection inside the water, a large amount of heat of water molecules with higher molecular kinetic energy will move to the surface. If there is no cover, it will cause a large amount of heat loss, so we use a cut balloon As a cover.

Prototype#2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Materials list and cost

 

 

 

 

Data:

 

 

 

Pros:

1.Cheap.

2.General insulation effect.

Cons:

1.The appearance is simple, not attractive.

Progression:

– Try to add aluminum foil inside the foam cup, to absorb heat.
– Add decoration to make themes look better.
We made the second idea based on the first one to reduce heat transfer and enhance the heat reflection in the inner layer. Since aluminum foil has very strong thermal conductively, if used in the inner layer, it can strengthen thermal reflection and achieve the effect of ” reheating ”to keep heat. With a lid made of the foam cup, it can reduce the heat loss caused by convection inside the water.

Prototype#3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Materials list and cost

 

 

 

 

Data:

 

 

 

 

Pros:

1.Better insulation effect.

2.Beautiful appearance.

Cons:

The coffee cup lid have a hole on the top, which will loss heat through the hole.

Progression:

-Find something to cover the hole on the lid to reduce or slow down the heat dissipation.

-Use aluminum to cover the lid, to achieve better insulation effect.

The third major is a combination and improvement of ideas. We have used the aluminum foil in the second experiment to achieve the internal thermal insulation effect of “reheating the water.” It can better achieve the effect of external insulation.

 

Final Product

Materials list and cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Our final product evolved from the third prototype, we proposed to add improvement of aluminum foil to the lid, and our final product is to test our hypothesis and improve. Since aluminum foil has very strong thermal conductively, if used in the inner layer, it can strengthen thermal reflection and achieve the effect of “reheating” to keep heat. The lid is made of aluminum foil, on the one hand, because of material price, on the other hand, because in the interior of the water can produce heat loss by convection, high quantity of heat of water molecules have higher molecular kinetic energy will move to the surface, if there is no lid can cause a lot of heat loss, and we want to use radiation of aluminum foil to reduce heat loss.
Overall, water in the prototype lose heat main is by conduction, so we are doing the project’s main idea is to use less thermal conductivity of materials to reduce heat conduction, so each of our design in outer do have “shell”, and through the results of the first we knew, the “shell” is not enough to reduce conduction, we need to strengthen inside, so we adopt with radiation heat material for “heating water again”.And at the top of the design is similar to the cup body, which is also using thermal conductivity less to reduce heat loss. But the second main consideration is the use of radiation, which reflects heat, to conserve it.

 

 

Climate and us

In the Trulock Bay area of Pine Bluff, Arkansas, June 6,2019. Areas along the Arkansas River saw record-setting flooding caused by heavy rain. As global temperatures continue to rise Arkansas is expected to experience more frequent and intense flooding.

The increase in global greenhouse gas emissions, which traps heat in the atmosphere, is causing temperature to rise. With higher temperatures, more water evaporates from sea and land and the atmosphere holds more water vapor. This in turn increases the chance of more intense rainstorms and the chance of flooding.

How does climate change lead to flooding? Below is the references.

https://www.nrdc.org/stories/flooding-and-climate-change-everything-you-need-know

1.Heavier Precipitation

A warmer atmosphere holds and subsequently dumps more water. Due to climate change, the probability of rainfall is at least 40% higher and the intensity is at least 10% higher. Of course, heavier rainfall does not automatically lead to floods, but it increases the potential for them. And even moderate amounts of rainfall can cause serious damage, particularly in places where urban flooding is on the rise.

2.More-Frequent Hurricanes
Climate change is increasing the frequency of our strongest storms. In the Atlantic basin, an 80 percent increase in the frequency of category 4 and 5 hurricanes (the most destructive) is expected over the next 80 years. And stronger storms bring greater rains.

Last Dat of weather reading

Observation:

Date-December 18, 2019

Air temperature-2 degree

Wind direction- North East

Wind speed-4.74 knots

Precipitation-drizzle

Dew point –  6 degree

Cloud type- Nimbostratus

Cloud cover-full

Lower air pressure

 

 

 

 

 

Map 1: There is lot of low pressure circling around which means that there will be lots of precipitation and clouds forming.

 

 

 

 

 

Map 2:

 

 

 

 

 

Map 3:

 

 

 

 

 

Map 4:More low pressure so there is more rain that is heading towards us.

 

Prediction:

From the data collected on the meteorological map, we see a swirling weather pattern centered on the low-pressure area. We think this will cause more clouds to form over us and cause precipitation, and the cold front in the vortex may lower the temperature a little bit.

 

Climate change

Blue: rainfall

Orange:temp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First, we noticed that the climate seemed to be increasing, but they were not increasing dramatically. It was observed that the climate in the tropical seemed to be increasing during the time period shown, with precipitation fluctuating but seems to remain near the same starting average.

During the time period shown, I noticed that the climate in the dry regions was fluctuating and precipitation was decreasing. The climate in the mild temperate zone is increasing, and precipitation is also increasing. Although they are not drastic changes.

Looking at the snow region the temperature is increasing, and precipitation is also greatly increasing. Finally, observing the polar region, averages seem to have a pattern to them through each period of time, the precipitation is increasing and within the last two time periods it has significantly increased.

Conclusion:From our observations we notice more climate change in the colder regions, as well as, the regions with precipitation increased.  Precipitation is usually increased in the snow and polar regions more significantly then the other regions. Therefore, the low temperature zones will experience more rainfall due to the increasing temperature. However, the high temperature zones stay around the average temperature, but the rain is increasing.

 

Lina Pan & Varick Shen

Weather Reading Day 4

Observation:

Date-December 17, 2019

Air pressure-1018.0 mb

Air temperature-2 degree

Wind direction- North

Wind speed-10 knots

Precipitation-rain shower

Dew point – -6 degree

Cloud type- Nimbostratus

Cloud cover-full

Lower air preesure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We predict that the cold regions in our south will cool down tomorrow. And continue the amount of precipitation and clouds we see, wind will be bigger tomorrow.

Map 1:

Map 2:

 

Map 3:

 

Map 4:

Weather Reading 3

Observation:

Date-December 16, 2019

Air pressure-1026.0 mb

Air temperature-8 degree

Wind direction- North East

Wind speed-10 knots

Precipitation-drizzle

Dew point – -2 degree

Cloud type-Nimbostratus

Cloud cover-full

Lower aire presume than last time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Map1

Map 2

 

 

 

 

 

Map 3

Map 4

 

 

 

 

 

We predict that there will be a more rain, and more wind tomorrow and because there is a high pressure zone moving up which will cause rain.

Weather Reading Day2

Observation:

Date-December 13, 2019

Air pressure-1017.0 mb

Air temperature-12 degree

Wind direction- East south

Wind speed-3.7 knots

Precipitation-drizzle

Dew point – 6 degree

Cloud type-Nimbostratus

Cloud cover-full

Higher air pressure than yesterday

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We predict that there will be a cloudy day because the low pressure zone isn’t getting close enough to cause rain,and little wind tomorrow.

Map 1 & Map 2

 

 

 

 

Map 3 & Map 4

Reading Weather

Map 1.

 

 

 

 

 

Map 2.

 

 

 

 

 

Map 3.

 

 

 

 

 

Map 4.

 

 

 

 

 

Weather Predictions:

Possibility of Cumulonimbus clouds front coming in from the west. If this front comes in, the rain will continue through the day, and there will be more wind tomorrow and it will be colder.

Observations:

Date-December 12, 2019

Air pressure-1010.0 mb

Air temperature-12 degree

Wind direction-south

Wind speed-4.7 knots

Precipitation-rain shower

Dew point – 8 degree

Cloud type-Nimbostratus

Cloud cover-full