B.C.’s Fishing Industry

1) Choose a species of fish and explain which ones you should consume and which ones you should avoid.

Sockeye Salmon (my favourite)

Based on the information I got from Ocean Wise, I found that the species Gillnet, Purse Seine, and Troll that are caught in the USA: Washington, Oregon and California should be avoided. In the fisheries in these areas, the farmed salmon are supplemented with hatchery fish which get to intermingle with the wild variety. When this happens the fishermen can accidentally catch the wild fish, which are an endangered species. Therefore, to prevent the extinction of the endangered species of that area, those fish should be boycotted.

2) With reference to the video “Salmon Confidential” and your own research about the advantages and disadvantages of salmon farming, assess how sustainable aquaculture is.

When fish are farmed (aquaculture), the close quarters of the fish allow for the rapid transmission and mutation of fish diseases. These fish are farmed in pens that are able to interact with the wild fish, and thereby, transmit the diseases that are produced to the wild variety, which kills most of the wild fish. If this continues It could kill all of our fish: farmed, and wild, therefore, I would say that aquaculture is not sustainable. The advantage of aquaculture is that it gives fish farmers a guaranteed “harvest” and they are able to control which variety the get, wile “protecting” wild populations. I think the way to make aquaculture sustainable is to only raise the fish to a young age and then release them into nature to go out into the ocean and come back to spawn. That way the fish are able to be more dispersed and have a much reduced chance of getting diseased. When the fish come back to spawn, the fisheries can just catch them with a large net, prepare some for consumption, and let others spawn for them to raise. This way we let nature do most of the work for us and we put more fish back into the ecosystem.

Deforestation and Silviculture

(Illegal logging for paper industry and forest clearing for Palm oil plantation. TESSO NILO Plantation Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia)

Deforestation: The process of removing a forest to use the land for agriculture or human habitation, or to harvest the trees for lumber.


1. There will be more space for farming.

2. The lumber could be used to build houses, or sold to other countries to gain a profit.

3. The space could be used for civilization. When we remove forests, it gives us far more land to expand our civilization; it makes more room for housing and commercial businesses.


1. The forests act as a carbon sink, they absorb CO2 from the air. Without them global warming is accelerated.

2. The forests also produce the oxygen we breathe, and without them there would be far less oxygen in the world.

3. The forests absorb water from the ground, preventing floods. Without the forests, there will be an excess amount of water and it will increase flooding.

4. When the forests are removed, it also removes the habitat of all of the animals in it, contributing to their extinction.

Silviculture: The process of replanting and managing a forest after it has been clear cut.


1. It can allow a forest to regrow after deforestation.

2. It can stop desertification (when drought causes the soil to be blown away by the wind, creating a desert).


1. The off cuts, scraps, and stumps caused by deforestation can make it hard for the forest to regrow.

2. When the forestry sector replants, they are focused on a plan of caring for the trees to harvest in the future.

3. Biodiversity is lost because the trees the forestry sector replants are the type they want for lumber; instead of the hundreds of types of trees that you would find in an old-growth forest.

Selective Logging: The process of removing part of a forest (only one or two species of tree).


1. Damage to habitats is mitigated because most of the trees remain.

2. Only the logs that are needed are harvested, allowing for resources to not be wasted.


1. As more and more trucks and people move in, it drives mammals out of their habitat.

2. It is a hard form of deforestation to detect because the forest density gets gradually thinned instead of cleared and it will eventually lead to complete deforestation.

3. In forest like the Amazon, where there are at least 35 marketable hardwoods, selective logging removes a lot more than just a small percentage of the trees.

How sustainable is B.C.’s forestry industry?

The statistics show that we are deforesting faster than the forests are regenerating, so if we keep it up at the speed we are, the forestry industry isn’t sustainable. For the forestry industry to be sustainable, we must take into account the speed in which we deforest. If we keep clear cutting, it will lead to many environmental problems, and if we keep replanting trees solely for future harvest, it will lead to decreased biodiversity. Moving forward I think we should take into account the demands on our forests, and then try to protect a certain percentage of them. We could even try to create a system of replanting and harvesting that increases the size of our forests and allows for the environment to not be negatively affected.






2-Dimentional Motion Build-A-Lab

Core Competencies

What strengths in terms of communication and collaboration were you able to bring to the group?

The strengths I have in communication and collaboration core competency that I was able to bring to the group include: decisiveness, efficient and accurate communication, leadership, and group organization skills. I did this by being clear in my communication, helping the team work together and making sure we were all doing the work properly.

How did this task allow for growth in the communication and collaboration core competency?

This task allowed me to maintain my group working skills by allowing me to work with people that I would not usually work with.

What aspects of communication and collaboration could you improve on in the future?

In the future I could improve on collaborating a bit more by letting someone else write the document on their computer (usually I write it on my computer).

Care ethics applied to the environment

An ethic of care, based on what I believe in, would be a kind of labour, a practice, a value, and a disposition. The ethic would be to maintain, contain and repair our world (our bodies, ourselves, and our environment) using four steps:
-1 Attentiveness: Being aware of what needs to be done.
-2 A willingness to respond: Wanting to do something about it.
-3 Competence: Working to gain the skills to be able to do something, or already being able to.
-4 Responsiveness: Using your skills to do what needs to be done in order to apply care.

When applying this same ethic to the environment the steps would look something like this:
-1 Learning about environmental problems.
-2 Being willing to respond, valuing the environment.
-3 Training in a skill or learning to become competent enough to help.
-4 Labouring to maintain or repair the environment in response.

In order to create this ethic we would need to become aware of some of the issues regarding the environment and how it could affect our personal ethics. For example, If you believed in utilitarianism you might find that caring for the environment could save many peoples lives, making it a good investment in your time. To take action we would have to learn about how we affect the environment, and should go about treating it like our home. It needs to be repaired and maintained because we live in it.

If we all took these actions and adopted an ethic of care for then environment, we would all be doing our part to help maintain or repair the environment. A few scenarios would be:
-Only shopping for local products with no plastic or non recyclable packaging
-Driving electric or walking/biking
-Voting in environmentally friendly MPs and parties
-Helping clean up garbage/reusing/recycling

The world would start to become free from fossil fuel and plastic-waste, we would see biodiversity come back, and all our power and resources would be clean and sustainable. Some of the only drawbacks I could see would be that people in the oil and plastic industry would have to find new jobs and unfortunately Lego would probably be made of wood.

So, should we adopt an ethic of care towards the environment? I think we should in order to preserve the planet we call home. But not everyone would be inclined to adopt this ethic of care towards the environment because everyone has different ethics that judge what they do and different motivations. So, I feel that to care for the environment the most we all should do what we feel we need to do in order to care for the environment.

Factoring and Radicals CC

How has factoring, and radicals improved your CCs?

Factoring and radicals have improved my critical thinking CCs by making me able to better analyze numbers. With factoring it helps me quickly solve quadratics and even break down whole numbers and with radicals I have become more adapt to simplifying them.

Factoring and radicals have improved my creative thinking CCs because having a better understanding of numbers helps me think of more creative ways to solve math problems.

Rube Goldberg – Tea Maker

(The following is a silly machine that takes unnecessary steps through different energy transfers to make a cuppa)

Machine Diagram

A. In this step, the chemical energy from the food I ate lets me move my arm (mechanical energy) to knock over the domino’s

B. In this step, the domino’s cause a chain reaction which knocks them all over; eventually, knocking over a yoyo. This is still mechanical energy.

C. In this step, the yoyo gets pushed down a slide (mechanical energy) by the energy from the domino’s (mechanical energy).

D. In this step, the electric kettle is turned on by the mechanical energy from the yoyo. This causes the kettle to start to draw electricity from the house to heat up water (thermal energy: conduction)

E. In this step, the steam is produced from the kettle heating up water (thermal energy), and this steam rises to push a teeter totter (mechanical energy).

F. In this step, the teeter totter moves down on the side with the teabag on it (mechanical energy), and the tea bag falls into the cup (gravitational energy).

Types of Energy in this Machine:

Chemical: The energy stored in the bonds between atoms that hold molecules together.

Mechanical: The movement of objects or substances from one place to another.

Thermal: The internal energy of a substance due to the vibration of its atoms or molecules.

Gravitational: The energy of an object because of its position of height.

Core Competencies

coming soon…


House Hunter’s

In this project we were tasked with finding an apartment, basement suit, or studio apartment for $1,800 or less per month, and fill out a data table. Here is a data table I created for an apartment I found in Maple Ridge.

Source webpage: https://www.kijiji.ca/v-apartments-condos/tricities-pitt-maple/new-one-bedroom-basement-suite/1436776584?enableSearchNavigationFlag=true

Date: 26/05/19 Cost: $1,200/month

Address of Rental: 24155 102 Ave, Maple Ridge, BC V2W 2C6, Canada (on top of a pizzeria!)

Distance to bus stop 9 minute walk
Pets allowed Caged only (birds, lizards etc.)
Deposit amount $1,200
Utilities included Brand new stainless steel appliances
Cable included No
Internet included Yes
Water bill amount Doesn’t Say
Smoking allowed No
Parking available No
Laundry available Yes
# of bedrooms 1 +Den
# of bathrooms 1
Name of neighbourhood Village Variety (above a pizzeria)
Distance to university/collage 1h 20m with transit
Furnished No
Appliances Fridge, Oven, Dishwasher, Washing Machine, and Dryer
Lease Doesn’t Say
Length of lease Doesn’t Say
Square footage 900

Wonder Project 2.0: String Theory

Last year I did a “Wonder Project” on Time Dilation. In this kind of project we have to ask ourselves a meaningful question (in the field of science), research about it, and make a blog post with all of our findings. This year we are doing a “Wonder Project” again, but it has to be space oriented.

My inquiry question for “Wonder Project 2.0” is:

What is “String Theory” and how does it explain our universe?

The Main Idea: Strings and a Theory of Everything

String theory is a theory that describes all forces and particles with one entity, the string. To do this, it tries to bring together elements of quantum physics and Einstein’s theory of relativity. It is basically a theory that tries to explain everything beyond our standard model of physics (beyond atoms, and subatomic particles).

How it’s Supposed to Work

String theory theorizes that everything in the universe is made up of tiny vibrating strings having a Planck length of about 10^-35 meters. They vibrate in different ways to make up all of the atomic and subatomic particles.

These strings could be open, form loops, merge with other strings, or divide into sub-strings. Like waves or particles from quantum mechanics, which string theory extends from, the strings aren’t made of any substance. If the theory is correct, these fundamental strings just are. They are like a kind of force. To make this theory work mathematically, there has to be eleven dimensions. Three spacial dimensions (up/down, left/right, and forward/backward), time, and seven more dimensions that are hidden from human senses because of their subatomic size, or because we are stuck in the four known dimensions and the others extend off from them.

How String Theory was Created

Unlike Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, String theory was created by many theoretical physicists over a long period of time. When it was first proposed, the strings were either closed or open, and there was no concept of an extra 7 dimensions. String theory lost traction in the world of science because of difficulties with the mathematics, but in the early 1980s there were two new mathematical discoveries that got it back on track. The first one was by using ten dimensions. The second one was by using something called the E(8) × E(8) symmetry model. By combining both of these concepts it repaired the mathematical difficulties string theory couldn’t previously overcome. Later, physicists Michael Green and John Schwarz, found that string theory could explain known particles, their behavior, and solve the point particle problem, and in 1995, another discovery showed that string theory could be combined with another theory called Supergravity, which used eleven dimensions instead of ten. Eventually it got to the point where the string theory we know today is actually now called Super String theory.

A Problem with Quantum Physics

In quantum physics, there has long been an issue with point particles. A point particle mathematically defined is a point, but, with a diameter of zero. At least a point that has a diameter that approaches zero. With all of the mathematics we have today forces on particles are related to the distance between particles; forces like magnetism and gravity. If something is infinitely small, then the radius, also being infinitely small causes the mathematics to grow the forces to infinite levels. So, point particles cause a paradox. The problem with Quantum Physics is you have these point particles that are infinitely small colliding with each other that should produce mathematically infinitely large forces but in reality, they don’t. This doesn’t make sense to the physicists, but in String theory, this problem doesn’t occur.


To conclude, string theory is a theory that attempts to explain all forces and all matter in the universe using very small, vibrating strings and an extra seven dimensions, sadly, we cannot observe either. As of now, there has been no physical evidence or proof that string theory is actually correct; the only proof we have is the elegantly complex mathematics that works it out. The main critics of string theory today, criticize the theory on the basis that it cannot be experimentally tested or proven.

Many researchers are wondering if they are going down an infinite rabbit hole; ”String theorists propose a seemingly endless amount of mathematical constructions that have no known relationship to observation,” Sabine Hossenfelder, a physicist at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies in Germany said. But, I think that eventually, they will be able to make an experiment that proves or disproves this theory.

Here is a video that explains string theory in a simplified way:



Mann, Adam. “What Is String Theory?” LiveScience, Purch, 20 Mar. 2019, www.livescience.com/65033-what-is-string-theory.html. Accessed 24 May 2019.

Gilman, Larry. “String theory.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 5th ed., Gale, 2014. Science In Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CV2644032154/SCIC?u=43sbo&sid=SCIC&xid=8a365a32. Accessed 23 May 2019.

“The Basic Elements of String Theory.” Dummies, www.dummies.com/education/science/physics/the-basic-elements-of-string-theory/. Accessed 24 May 2019.

Information Fluency

1. What questions did you need to research in order to research your topic?

First I researched basic information just to understand string theory in a nutshell, and then I went further and researched the history, why people believe in it, and some criticisms critics have to say about it.

2. What new or familiar digital tools did you try to use as you worked through this project?

To work on this project I used the familiar tools I have at my disposal: Gale Engaged Learning Science in Context, Google, EasyBib and YouTube. I used Google to narrow down my question, Gale to find reliable sources, YouTube to find a relevant video, and EasyBib to write the bibliography.

3. What was the process you used to investigate the topic?

To investigate my project I first used Google to narrow down my question because I had no idea what string theory was. Then I used YouTube to gather some general understanding, and finally Gale to find reliable sources.

4. How did you verify and cite the information you found?

To verify the information I used, I either got it from Gale or cross-referenced the source and made sure it was stating valid information. To site it, I plugged it into a program called EasyBib.

5. How did the process of completing this challenge go? What could you have done better?

The challenge was done in a relatively short period of time, one week, so it was kind of a crunch because I had to only research the basic information. If I had more time, I would’ve researched more, particularly how some of the math works.