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Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system. They send and receive information all over the body using both chemical and electrical signals. Even if they look very complicated, their structure is actually very simple. In fact, the neuron is broken up into 2 major regions:
A region for receiving and processing incoming information from other cells and a region for conducting and transmitting information to other cells. Also, the type of information that is received, processed and transmitted by a neuron depends on its location in the nervous system. There are three types of neurons:sensory, motor, and interneurons.
Interneurons relay signals between sensory neurons, and motor neurons.
Sensory neurons are nerve cells that are responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism’s environment into internal electrical impulses
Motor neurons are nerve cells that form part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.
The basic purpose of a neuron is to receive incoming information and, based upon that information, send a signal to other neurons, muscles, or glands and they are designedto rapidly send signals across long distances.
The action potentialis a nerve impulse that travelling along an axon, changes the polarity across the membrane of the axon.In response to a signal from another neuron, sodium- (Na+) and potassium- (K+) gated ion channels open and close as the membrane reaches its threshold potential. Repolarization is when the membrane potential becomes more negative at a particular spot on the neuron’s membrane, while depolarization is when the membrane potential becomes less negative (more positive)
The synapse consists of three elements: The presynaptic membrane which is formed by the terminal button of an axon, the postsynaptic membrane which is composed of a segment of dendrite or cell body, and the space between these two structures which is called the synaptic cleft.
The function of the synapse is to transfer electric activity from one cell to another and the transfer can be from nerve to nerve, or nerve to muscle. Dendrites receive signals from other neurons at specialized junctions called synapses. There is a small gap between two synapsed neurons, where neurotransmitters are released from one neuron to pass the signal to the next neuron.
The short story, “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty,” written by James Thurder, shifts from accounts of expressionism to realism: expressionism is a mental concept that is displayed such as flashbacks, memories, dreams and thoughts, while realism seeks to reproduce the effect of real-time people and situations. Expressionism can be described as the pause of live time, otherwise of realism, that represents events in present time and portrays what is happening. In the story, it can be well noticed that the writer plays with the plot in a slightly confusing way, making the protagonist (Walter Mitty) live real adventures and imaginary adventures without explicit transitions. Expressionism emerges when Walter Mitty dreams about being the commander of an Hydro plane, while his wife yells at him to slow down in his car (realism). It can also be seen the passage of situations when Walter Mitty imagines being a surgen working on a millionaire banker, when he drives by the hospital putting his gloves on. In conclusion, this alternation of situations makes the plot of the short story very interesting and innovative, and this makes the reader more intrigued and passionate.
There was a sheet of paper on the ground next to a tree, and the still lit cigarette ends just near that object so easily immovable. Initially nothing happens; then, from the corner of a building, a woman screams: “on fire, on fire”. The piece of paper had set on fire, and the flames have managed to reach the branches of the tree. Mitty runs away, he messed up. As he runs quickly to the car he meets his wife, takes her by the arm and as soon as he reaches the vehicle, he starts it, without giving her any explanation. While they are at the traffic lights, they see a fire truck driving very quickly towards the place of the fire, but Mitty, as soon as the light turns green, goes on without a word. “Walter”,said mrs. Mitty, “can you see that?” He suddenly braked and stopped the car brusquely: in front of them, there was the most beautiful musical instruments’ shop of the town. They both got out of the car and began to feel a pleasant melody, coming from inside the store, that was made by a guy who was gently caressing the strings of a guitar…
“I am very pleased to welcome the most beautiful and profound voice to my jazz club, let’s make a warm applause to Walter Mitty”, says the owner of the city’s most sophisticated pub. Walter Mitty starts singing his new song, fascinating all the richest politicians who have the pleasure of enjoying that show, accompanied by a cigarette, a chat and a few glasses of cognac. At a certain point, in the middle of the “Trumpets Song”, the atmosphere in the room changes and the musicians suddenly stop playing: the front door opens and closes noisily, leaving behind three security guards. After looking a bit around in the room,they quickly get on stage, take out a gun and point it at Walter’s Mitty temple, saying “you no longer have any escape now, we have discovered you: it’s over”.
The short story “The Sound of Thunder” by Ray Bradbury, is about the adventure of a man that, thanks to a time machine, returns in the past to live the exciting experience of killing a Tyrannosaurus Rex. In the story, it can be noticed that there is a butterfly effect, the phenomenon whereby a minute localized change in a complex system can have large effects elsewhere. For example, the impact of technology has made decide Eckels’ to try the time machine and go back to the past, but if he had not taken this decision, he would not have been killed for having changed the whole history by leaving the path. Another example could be that the selection of hunt causes drastic reactions, and the effect is the extinction of a species In conclusion, it can be learned that every event in life is the effect of a previous one, so everything depends on how people do their actions.