How sustainable is Aquaculture?

Aquaculture is fish or shellfish farming. It’s the breeding, rearing and harvesting of plants and animals in oceans, lakes, rivers and ponds. 

Aquaculture brings in large economic benefits to BC. However, as the demand for fish continues it will add stress to aquaculture and cause environmental problems. These problems make aquaculture unsustainable and will lead to its destruction in the future. 

There are a variety of negative impacts on the environment that are a result of aquaculture; one of which is farmed fish. Many fish need to eat smaller fish in order to survive and cannot do so in a farm. In a farm, fish are fed ground up animal protein or fish oil. This causes a problem as fish are not getting the proper diet they need to survive. As well smaller fish were used in order to help produce the fish in the farm. In addition, there are many chemicals and enhancers that are present in farms. If a farmed fish escapes then harmful toxins can be released into the wild and causes harm to native fish. Another issue is the close proximity of fish in farms, this allows for diseases to easily spread and kill multiple fish at once. 

Commercial fishing also contributes to negative impacts on the environment and aquaculture itself. In BC a large portion of our revenue is made off of salmon. With salmon being in high demand here, there is the risk of overfishing. Overfishing would mean there wouldn’t be enough salmon to repopulate. Thus, industries would lose business with the lack of fish. 

Overall, aquaculture is not sustainable as there are many problems that go along with it. If such methods continue it will lead to the downfall of BC’s fishing industries. 

BC’s Forestry Industry

Define and list the benefits and drawbacks of clearcutting, silviculture and selective logging  

Clearcutting is defined as cutting down and removing every tree in an area. 

The benefits of clearcutting is that it allows for more uniform crops, it is easier and more efficient, lower costs in planning and harvesting, less damage to regeneration of forests and can help eliminate and control pests. 

The drawbacks is that it can cause mudslides, it negatively impacts the species living in the area and can prevent regeneration of full growth and reduce the diversity of trees in the area. 

Silviculture is the growing and cultivation of trees.

The benefits include allowing for more uniformed crops, lowers the cost of logging, water quality isn’t affected, can preserve the landscape, new forests established after, improves diversity as a variety of species are planted and fertilizers can speed up growth.  

Some drawbacks to silviculture is that it is expensive, takes lots of planning and time and forests can be completely wiped out by one disease if not properly prepared. 

Selective logging is the practice of cutting down several species of trees while leaving the rest intact. 

Benefits of selective logging is that its far less destructive compared to clearcutting, only takes what is needed and lets other plants continue to grow, only the highest quality is harvested and only certain trees are chosen based off of safety factors. 

Drawbacks are that it can dry out the soil as the previous trees used to provide shade. Another is that it destroys the habitat in which organisms need in order to survive. As well, some organisms depend on the trees. 

How sustainable is BC’s Forestry Industry? Support your opinion with reference to the readings 

There are many reasons to support why BC’s Forestry Industry negatively impacts the environment. In addition, BC’s Forestry Industry also lacks sustainability. The main contributor to BC’s economy and the lack of sustainability is logging. Logging is the process of harvesting trees to either use to make products or to be exported around the world. There are two ways in which the process of logging is carried out. One is clearcutting, while the other is selective logging. Due to these methods of logging the forests of BC are rapidly depleting. Although BC uses silviculture to replenish these forests because it involves human interaction the forests cannot be replenished on its own. The intervention of humans disrupts the natural sustainability process; therefore, BC’s Forestry Industry is not sustainable. 

Wind Erosion

Read 271-272 + wind-erosion-effects

  1. How can wind eroded landscapes benefit the economy?

Benefits tourism (many people come to see this park to view the structures). Ex Pedestal rocks in Arches National Park, Utah. Also benefits plants.

  1. If arid regions are generally dry, why is water considered the chief agent in erosion of these areas? (see pg 269)

Water is the chief agent because it formed the features in these areas. Since there is little vegetation here, the environment doesn’t have much resistance against weathering and erosion. 

  1. What concerns with wind erosion would you have in settling deserts or arid environments?

Wind erosion can cause sand or dust storms that are detrimental to agriculture, health and water. Wind erosion also blows the lighter elements in soil, such as clay, away. These sediments are what make the soil fertile which causes the land to be unfit for agricultural growth.

  1. Explain how humans contribute to increased wind erosion?

Removing vegetation. Too much animal grazing, timber cutting and different farming methods strip and destroy the top soil. This leaves the ground exposed to wind erosion.

  1. What can be done to mitigate wind erosion?

Planting more vegetation can protect the landscape from weathering and erosion. Adding water to dry areas to hold the dirt down

  1. How dangerous is wind erosion to human populations? ‘Explain with evidence from your readings.

Wind erosion is not terribly dangerous. The processes of wind erosion take many years to take place. As such, it poses no immediate threat to the population. 


Dear Mr. Heyman,

I am writing to you in hopes that you will understand my concern regarding the practice of hydraulic fracturing in British Columbia. With the research I have gathered, one of my biggest concerns is regarding the environmental impacts it has on our water. Millions of gallons of water is used in part of the process of fracking. Although water may be plentiful here in British Columbia, the increase in global warming demands that we take precautions to keep our water supplies abundant. In addition, the fracking drill passes through our groundwater supply and has the potential to leak chemicals. Although British Columbia may not rely on groundwater as much as other provinces, it is important we keep these waters clean for the environment. One well can produce over a million gallons of wastewater that contains highly corrosive salts, radioactive elements and other chemicals. The wastewater has the potential to spill during collection, processing and transport which my end up in rivers or near by vegetation. Any human or animal that happens to intake these chemicals are at a greater risk of developing cancer and living a much shorter life span. Fracking does not ensure the health of British Columbians or our environment. In my opinion, fracking is unsafe and will cause more damage in the future.



Kiana Hofmann

Fracking’s Environmental Impacts: Water



1. What is the difference between weathering, erosion and deposition?

Weathering is defined as the disintegration or deposition of rocks in places on or near the earth’s surface. Erosion is the removal and movement of rock debris and associated organic matter. Deposition occurs when a drop in energy slows the transporting agent to the point where it deposits some of its rock materials.

2. How does the hydrosphere affect weathering, erosion and deposition?

Weathering: Frost shattering, water seeps into fractures and joints within rocks, it freezes into ice crystals and expands, splitting the rocks apart. Erosion: bodies of water transports water from one place to another. Deposition: After being transported by water, water helps create clay and deltas.

3. List the positives and negatives of degradation to people.

-Negative~ (land slides, floods, building breakage, pot holes)

-Positives~architectural design, creation of coral reefs(clay)

4. Explain how humans may contribute to weathering (physical and chemical).

– Physical(walking to break rocks, mining, construction)

– Chemical(co2 acid rain limestone, pooling water)

5. Explain how physical weathering could end up increasing the rate of chemical weathering.

Physical weathering breaks down rocks to create larger surface area for chemical weathering.

6. What is the relationship between climate and weathering

Arid, dry and hot climates are more likely to bring about physical weathering processes. Whereas warm and wet climates will bring about chemical weathering processes

7. Why would crystal growth occur less frequently in humid regions?

Crystal growth tends to happen in an environment where water is evaporating. In a constantly humid climate where evaporation isn’t taking place. Crystal growth is less likely to occur.

8. Why do soils develop faster and deeper in tropical areas than in cooler, temperate latitudes like southern Canada?

In humid and warm areas the ground is moist. This moisture will reach far below ground. The moisture will not let the soil harden and settle but instead will keep it loose and moist.

Plate Techonics Questions

1 Explain why the plastic nature of the asthenosphere and convection currents are important to the theory of plate tectonics.
The theory of plates tectonics is where the plates are always moving. The asthenosphere and convention currents have a plastic nature that allow them to be able to flow slowly under the pressure.


2 Which type of plate boundary is:
▪ Found at mid-ocean ridges? Diverging plate boundaries
▪ Most often associated with forming mountain belts on continents? Converging plates boundaries
▪ Associated with the San Andreas fault? Transform fault boundaries


3 Is it better to live near a regularly active fault line or an inactive fault line? Explain.
It is better to live near a regularly active fault line because pressure is being released at smaller scale and will be less deductive. While inactive fault lines could be building up large amounts of pressure that may cause greater damage.


4 Explain why volcanic activity along transform faults is relatively rare.
Transform faults is when two plates slide past one another. When two plates slide past one another they do not generate large buildups of magma or pressure like subduction zones. This means transform faults cannot create hotspots, which is where a volcano would potentially form.


5 Use a plate boundary map to explain why Japan and Indonesia should face more earthquakes than anywhere else in the world. (provide the map you used in your post)
Japan and indonesia are right beside two converging plates boundaries. This means they are more likely to face multiple earthquakes than anywhere else. They are also by the ring of fire, which is where most volcanos are.


6 Use a plate boundary map and explain how plate tectonics would affect where you live.
BC is close to the converging plates of North America and Juan De Fuca, which could cause earthquake.


7 Use a plate boundary map and explain the relationship between the position of volcanoes, fault lines and plate movement.
Volcanoes are mostly found where two plates converge and diverging plates where the plates move apart from each other. Fault lines or transform faults is where plates slide past one another. Volcanoes are rarely found along fault lines.


8 Using a plate boundary map and the population density map below, which countries are at risk of having many people affected by earthquakes and volcanic activity?
Counties that are at a higher include Japan (Pacific, Eurasia and Philippine plate), India (Indian-Australian and Eurasian plate) and Italy (Eurasian plate and African plate)

Geography Rock Questions

1. How do the formation of rocks affect your life? Organize your response by the rock type. 

  • Sedimentary affects me because without shale I would not have been able to create my pottery work
  • Extrusive igneous rocks affect my life because the lava rocks in my yard are used as decoration
  • Metamorphic soapstone affects me because it creates jewellery


2. In what ways is the rock cycle affected by the energy within the earth, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere? Explain which rock types would be affected by each. 

  • Igneous rocks are also affected by the atmosphere because these rocks are formed by the cooling of molten when exposed to the air. They can also be affected by the hydrosphere when lava gets in contact with water.
  • Sedimentary rocks are affected by the hydrosphere because bones and shells are broken down on the ocean bed. Also affected by the atmosphere because tiny minerals erode the rock faces that create sedimentary rocks.
  • Metamorphic rocks are affected by the earth’s internal heat and energy.


3. Explain why sedimentary rocks usually do not contain metallic materials 

  • Because of their creation through deposition, minerals in sedimentary rocks are non-metallic. In order for metallic minerals to form there needs to be high temperatures and pressure. Sedimentary rocks lack the heat and amount of pressure required to form metallic minerals.


4. Look ahead to the map on page 87, explain where in Canada you would except to find metamorphic rocks forming 

  • Metamorphic rocks are found deep below the earth’s surface where mountain ranges are forming. These rocks only become visible when overlaying minerals are eroded away. You can find metamorphic rocks forming in the Canadian Shield. As well as the Rocky Mountains. Mostly found in the West coast where the earth’s crustal plates collide.


5. If you were attempting to discover oil and gas deposits in Canada, what conditions would you be looking for?

  • Deposits of oil and gas can be found in areas of sedimentary rock formation. You can find oil and gases deposits in the plains of Canada and areas like the foothills of the Rocky Mountains.


6. Explain how it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that appear layered.

  • Sedimentary rocks have a band or line that breaks, while metamorphic rocks have a band layer that does not break


7. Use the rock type map of Canada to identify the major rock types for each province/territory and the possible resources that may add to their economy 

BC – Intrusive, Sedimentary, Metamorphic (Mining, Fossil Fuels, Building Materials)

Alberta – Sedimentary (Fossil Fuels)

Saskatchewan – Sedimentary (Fossil Fuels)

Manitoba – Intrusive, Sedimentary, Metamorphic (Mining, Fossil Fuels, Building Materials)

Ontario – Intrusive, Sedimentary, Metamorphic (Mining, Fossil Fuels, Building Materials)

Quebec – Intrusive (Mining)

Newfoundland/Labrador – Intrusive (Mining)

New Brunswick – Intrusive (Mining)

PEI – Intrusive Nova Scotia – Intrusive

Yukon – Intrusive, Sedimentary (Mining and Fossil Fuels)

Northwest Territories – Sedimentary (Fossil Fuels)

Nunavut – Sedimentary, Metamorphic (Fossil Fuels and Building Materials)


8. Explain how rocks can affect politics and economics around the world. Give specific examples 

  • The production of fossil fuels, metals and other valuable minerals make up a large part of countries income. As well there are many jobs for people to collect these rock resources.Without rocks there would not be fuel for vehicles and lanes which carry other good around the world. Rocks help countries trade with each other.