Surface area

In Ms. Burtons math class, we work on surface area. For surface area we learned how to count the faces for a shape for example if you have a cube and the number of faces on a cube is 6 because if you ever play a game with a dice and a dice always have 1-6 then that is how you know how many faces there are for a cube. After that we moved on to finding the area of the shape for example when you have a cube then the rule to find the area is ( base   height) and that is how you can find the surface area of one square but you need to find the entire cube the you would need to time the number you had found for a square by 6 then you will get the surface area of the cube. After that we moved on to finding the surface area of shapes stacked up together for example when you have two cube and one of the cubes are 5cm for base, length and height and the other cube is 9cm for base, length and height. Then you would have to do that same thing as if you only had on cube. After when you are done finding the two cubes area then you would have to add up the two cube and then you would have to subtract the top and bottom of the smaller cube then that is how you can find the surface area to a stacked up shape.

Chemistry inquiry project



Define, Discover, Dream, Deliver, Debrief


When we started the project, we had some challenges like finding a topic that we might not be familiar with. We then decided to do cell phones, but it was too much work to do with not enough time. It is difficult to find a topic that is informative and interesting.


After we had picked a topic about cell phone radiation, we did some research on the internet. We then brainstormed some questions on this topic. We discussed and finally each of us came up with four questions.


When making the questions we got advice for the group and from friends and family and do more research. Finally, we made a plan with timeline to complete the project.


To present the project, we decided to make a poster because it was easier and more effective to put all the information together and with less technical problem on using software. Also, we can pass around the poster in class, so everyone can see it better.


I think the process of the project is pretty smooth because we finished it by the due date. However, if we got more time, our work could be more comprehensive.







Establish, Envision, Execute, Examine


At the first place it was hard to get a good topic that we were interested because each of us has different ideas.


After we picked the topic we decided twelve questions and then we draw four questions each, so it was fair. Then we did a time line to complete the work on time and we all agree to follow. As I have a colour printer at home I am responsible to print out the pictures. On the other hand, Camron had a poster board so we gave her all the printed work so she could glue them on. Therefore, we shared our own resources and workload.


As a group we need to help each other when we have problem and work together to complete the work. We all have to be responsible to our own part of work and listen to each other’s opinion.


I think that the collaboration for my group went really well because we all did our jobs. Besides I learned some knowledge about the cell phone radiation,  we all also learned from each other and how to work effectively as a group.

What I had learn in grade 9 polynomials

In Mrs. Burtons math class we learned about Polynomials. On the first day, when we started on the polynomial’s unit, Mrs. Burton gave us a sheet with three different shapes of cards and the first one was x^2 and the second one was just x and the last one was 1. We had to colour them all in one colour and then cut them out. I coloured mine in pink on one side, so I would know which side positive and which side is negative. Mrs. Burton told us that the side with colour is going to be positive and the side without colour would be negative. She then gave us all an envelope to put our cut-out tiles in, so we won’t lose them and it’s going to be there for every class.

And I found that using the tiles for adding and subtracting were very useful because you won’t have to draw out everything and you can group them and then subtract everything if you have positives and negatives. The way Mrs. Burton thought that is how to use the tiles when adding and subtracting. For adding, Mrs. Burton gave us some numbers like -4x^2 + 6x-7+ 6x^2 -4x+ 8. And then you get the same number of tiles and lay them out according to the way she had gave us.  Then you arrange them into the order from the biggest shape to the smallest shape.  You can start taking away the shapes with zero pairs, so you can get the answer. And the answer of that was $latex 2x^2 +2x +1.

And for subtraction, you could do almost the same thing, but it would be in brackets so if the number is (-3x^2 +4x-5) – (2x^2 -3x -6).  First, you should take away the brackets, then change negative numbers to positive in subtraction. For the next line you should write = -3x^2 +4x-5 + -2x^2 +3c +6.  Next step you should arrange the shapes and write down = $ latex -3x^2$ -2x^2 +4x +3x -5 +6 then you could find the answer and it is -5x^2 +7x +1. Whenever you are doing subtraction for polynomials, you always have to change the number after the subtraction sign because you cannot subtract polynomials without changing the numbers into the opposite sign.


And for multiplying polynomials, we got some questions on the board written by Mrs. Burton and one of the questions was 2x · 3x = 6x^2. You would multiply the numbers the way you usually do and then look at the c and see how many x’s is there.   If there is one, you would just put down one c for the answer.


If there are two or more to the power of x’s, you can put down x^2 or x^3 and then just add up with the same to power of x’s. But mostly we would have drawings with the work so it’s easier for us to find the answer.  The pictures basically show us the answers, if there is two c’s on the side and three x’s on the top then you just put down 2x·3x= 6x^2.


Next, we move on to dividing polynomials. When we do division of polynomials, it is like the same things doing simple division. For example -6x¸3=-2x, you have to place six x negative cards and spilt it into three even groups. So, there are two in each group.




What I have learn in grade 9 exponents.

In Mrs. Burton’s math class, we stated a new unit and that unit was on exponents. When we first started exponents, Mrs. Burton taught us how to put integers into exponents like this 5^3 and the equals too “five to the third power” or “five cubed”. After that we moved on to finding out which exponent is bigger like 4^2 < 5^3 how do I know that the $5^3 is bigger well because I would do 4×4= 16 and 5x5x5= 125 so it would be 16 < 125. We also learned how we can find the number a lot faster and easier at the same time 2x2x2x2x2x2 and the we would put them into this (2×2) (2×2) (2×2) = 4x4x4=16×4=64. After learning all of that we moved on to dividing exponents and this is what she thought us \frac{7}{7} and then you would  cross out the 7 on the top and the 7 on the bottom and you would be left off with \frac{1}{1} and that equals too 1.

Climate Change

  1. What is climate?


Climate is a composite of weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, evenly out over a series of years.



  1. What impacts climate on earth?


The impacts climate on earth basically are natural, like volcanic eruptions and changes in the amount of solar energy. Other factors change climate today are caused by humans, like the addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.



  1. What is climate change?


The global climate is the connected system of sun, earth and oceans, wind, rain and snow, forests, deserts and savanna, and human activities. The climate of a place can be described as its rainfall, changing temperatures throughout the year and so on. Moreover, the global climate is described as more than a specific place of climate. From a global view like the rising temperature of the Pacific leads to harder typhoon, heavier rain and cause more damage, but also shifts global ocean currents which melt Antarctica ice in result slowly makes sea level rise. Therefore, climate change is a significant, long-term changes in the global climate. In the 20th Century Earth’s average temperature rose 0.6° Celsius (1.1°F).




  1. What causes the climate change?


The main causes of the climate change are human actives. Global warming is a side effect of many things that people do – like driving cars, heating homes, running factories, and replacing forests into towns. Our landfills and farm animals are also cause for recent climate change too.

  1. Burning fossil fuels

When burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas like carbon dioxide releases into the atmosphere. These gases trap heat in the atmosphere way out to space, causing Earth’s greenhouse effect to grow more intense, warming the climate.



  1. Over development of land

Climate changes also due to the overdevelopment of land. For example, when trees and other plants are cut down to be replaced by new buildings or parking lots, climate warms because less carbon dioxide is taken out of the atmosphere without the plants. Also, the concret and buildings will hold more heat than forests and fields and they stay warm for some more time after heated by the sun.

  1. Agricultural activities

Agriculture also adds greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Farm animals release a particularly strong greenhouse gas called methane when they digest food. Plus, factory-made fertilizers release nitrous oxide, another strong greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.




  1. What are the Consequences of climate change?


  1. Rising sea level


Climate change leads to the rising of sea levels. Average sea level around the world rose about 8 inches (20 cm) in the past 100 years; and it is expected to rise more and more rapidly in the next 100 years as part of climate change impacts.

Some of the coastal cities such as New York is already has an increased number of flooding events Sea levels are expected to rise 1 to 4 feet (30 to 100 cm), enough to flood many small Pacific island states (Vanuatu), famous beach resorts (Hilton Head) and coastal cities (Bangkok, Boston).


If the Greenland ice cap and/or the Antarctic ice shelf collapses, sea levels could rise by as much as 20 ft (6 m), inundating, for example, large parts of Florida, the Gulf Coast, New Orleans and Houston (Source: National Climate Assessment)


  1. Melting Ice


Projections suggest climate change impacts within the next 100 years, the world’s glaciers will have disappeared, as will the Polar ice cap, and the huge Antarctic ice shelf, Greenland may be green again, and snow will be rare at what are now the world’s most popular ski resorts.


  1. Torrential downpours and more powerful storms

The production of rainfall in the specific conditions, climate change impacts the amount of water in the atmosphere and instead of steady showers, it will increase the violent downpours.


  1. Heatwaves and droughts


On the other hand, droughts and prolonged heatwaves will become common in some other places.

Heating interferences the entire global weather system and can shift cold upper air currents as well as hot dry ones. Single snowballs and snowstorms do not make climate change arguments.

However, this will become more and more, hot, dry places will get hotter and drier, and places that were once temperate and had regular rainfall will become much hotter and much drier.


The record high temperature and the record number of global droughts of the past decade will become common.



  1. Changing ecosystems


The entire ecosystems will be changed by the global warming.



Due to the rise of temperature, the agricultural and fishing activities have to move further to the north areas where are cooler since many fish species have migrated to the area with proper temperature for them and same as crops growing.


Therefore, this may increase fishermen’s catches in the colder area whereas reducing fishing in warmer waters. For example, the East Coast of the US, it will require fishermen to go further to reach fishing grounds.


On the other hand, farmers are threatened by the drier conditions for crops growing like corn and wheat in the temperate zones.


There is complete ecological change in some areas too. In California and on the East Coast, for example, climate change impacts and warming will soon fundamentally change the forests; in Europe, hundreds of plants species will disappear and hundreds more will move thousands of miles.


  1. Reduced food security


One of the most significant impacts of rising temperatures is in global agriculture,

Different crops grow best at quite specific temperatures and when those temperatures change, their productivity changes remarkably.


In North America, for example, rising temperatures may reduce corn and wheat productivity in the US mid-west, however expand production and productivity north of the border in Canada.


The productivity of rice, the essential food of more than one third of the world’s population, drops 10% with every 1⁰ C increase in temperature.


Although the advances in rice technology and larger applications of fertilizer increase the production of rice, it is expected the future increases in temperatures may reduce production 25% by 2050 for the largest exporter, Thailand.


At the same time, it is anticipated that there will be an increase of 3 billion people in developing world by 2050. To maintain the present levels of food consumption, the food producers have to double the main food crop production.


  1. Pests and Disease


Rising temperatures favor agricultural pests, diseases and disease vectors.

Pest populations are on the rise and illnesses once found only in limited, tropical areas are now spreading to wider zones.


For example, in Southeast Asia, where malaria had been reduced to a wet season only disease in most areas, it is again endemic almost everywhere throughout the year.


Likewise, dengue fever, once largely confined to tropical areas, has become endemic to the whole region.


Increased temperatures also increase the reproduction rates of microbes and insects, speeding up the rate and they develop resistance to control measures and drugs.



  1. How can we relieve the impacts of climate change?


There is too much carbon in the atmosphere and existing technology – cars, factories, airplanes, ships, buildings – will continue to emit huge amounts more into the foreseeable future.


The only thing to do is to reduce the amount of atmospheric carbon.


A) Walk, cycle, or take transit instead of driving.

Transportation is the biggest contributor to carbon emissions. Most of these emissions are from passenger vehicles, so start by considering the impact of your everyday journeys.


B) Limit your consumption.


Modern consumer culture promotes the constant purchase of new things and disposal of old. ‘Reduce’ is the most important part of the mantra ‘reduce, reuse, recycle’.


  1. Reduce your food waste.

In 2015, carbon emissions from the waste sector accounted for approximately five percent of Ontario’s total greenhouse gas emissions.



  1. Use less energy at home.

Also, carbon emissions come from heating and cooling our homes and buildings, so making your house more energy efficient is a great way to limit your impact.

Getting a smart thermostat will help you lower your energy use and lower your energy bills.  You can also lower your heating by a couple of degrees, turn off your air conditioner when it’s not needed, or hang drying your clothes instead of using a dryer.


  1. Limit your air travel.

Taking one round-trip across flight can represent up to one-third of the average Canadian’s carbon emissions for an entire year.

If you can avoid flying with other options like rail, or even enjoying a staycation, choose the lower carbon option.


  1. Give your home an energy retrofit.

You can largely reduce your carbon footprint by improving your insulation, replacing an inefficient furnace or fitting new energy efficient windows. Start with a home energy audit to find out what needs to be done first.


  1. If you have to drive, consider an Electric Vehicle or Plug in Hybrid.

Electric cars are a good low-carbon alternative to gas vehicles.

These can reduce your carbon emissions from transportation by up to 90% compared to a regular car.


I)     Use renewable energy.

You can do this by adding solar panels to your roof or investing in community solar or wind projects.

Adding solar panels reduces our reliance on fossil fuels and contributes to the move towards a fully renewable energy future. Some countries use wind power too.



J)    Eat less meat and more plant-based foods.

The meat industry uses up large amounts of land and contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions.

“Meatless Mondays” or reducing your meat consumption to at most one meal per day can have a big impact. Eat more plants and try growing some of them yourself can be helpful.


What I had learned

In Mrs. Burton math class we got to learn about fractions but before we learned about fractions we had to learn integers first before we got into fractions. When Mrs. Burton gave us a review on integers it was pretty easy because for the first two day we learned about adding and subtracting integers like -5+5=0, 8-(9)=1. After that we moved on to multiplying and dividing integers and it was pretty easy too well for me and these are some of the questions she had gave us \frac{3}{-18}=-6 why is it -6 because if there is one negative sign then that means it is going to be a negative number and if there is two negative signs then that will be a positive number. And these are the multiplying questions -6×7=-42 and why is it in a negative number because it is the same thing with devision if there is one negative sign then that means it is going to be a negative number and if there is two negative signs then that will be a positive number. After taking four-five classes of integers we finally got to move on to fractions. Why do we have to learn integers first because if we got an review on the integers it would be a lot easier for us on the fractions because the fractions we learned had some negative numbers like this on \frac{-5}{25}=-5 why is it -5 because if you look at the fraction closely you can tell that the fraction is exactly like the on I showed you for the dividing integers. Now this is the mutinying fraction \frac{1}{2}x\frac{-5}{7}=\frac{-5}{14}. And that is what we had learned in Mrs. Burton’s math class.