What Darwin Never Knew

The discovery of DNA proved that Darwin’s theory of evolution was correct according to the NOVA documentary. One way it proved his theory, was that todays technology is able to read the DNA sequences. The advantage of being able to read through the sequences of DNA is that you are able to compare it with other types of species. Usually there are a lot of similarities between species. An example is with humans and chimpanzees. There is only a 1 percent difference in DNA  Of humans and a chimpanzees. This proves that if we share such similar DNA with animals like chimpanzees, that Darwins theory is correct – we do change and adapt overtime, which explains why some parts of our DNA is not the same. Another part of DNA that proves that Darwins theory is in fact correct, are the switches that were found in DNA. These switches turn on and off different genes that do different functions in our bodies. Some of these genes in our bodies are turned off due to the function not being needed anymore in the modern day species. An example is that there were two types of flies, they were the same species but one had spots on its wings and the other did not. What scientists found out was that in their DNA they both had these same genes for the spots on their wings. Although, the fly without the spots on their wings had the genes turned off in their DNA. As an experiment, scientists were able to turn on those genes in the fly and the spots later appeared on it. This proves that we also have these Switches as so do other species, showing why different species vary.

Thirdly are that mutations in genes can change a species over time. A mutation is when there is a change in a DNA sequence. If an animal has few gene mutation, this is enough to change the order of what genes are turned on and off, switching up the species majorly. This could change the species so much that it becomes a totally new species. This is one way of which we all were one species could have made us change overtime. This proves Darwins theory, because prehistoric fish had the genes for arms and legs. A couple mutations and it could change the genes that are on and off. They could grow legs from the mutation.

How these change the way we view evolution today is that we are now able to under stand better of how evolution has occurred over time, and that we are more alike to the other species than it seems. This is all thanks to the study of DNA sequencing, testing, etc. How the theory changes how we view evolution in the future, is that we understand that we will change and so will other species through time.

The 6 Kingdoms

Eubacteria

Aquifex  pyrophilus 

aquifex pyrophilus is in the Eubacteria kingdom and are also known as Aquificae. They are known to live in  harsh environments. Aquifex pyrophilus are able to produce water as they can oxidize hydrogen. The way of reproduction with them is that it is done asexually; same as the archaebacteria.

Cyanobacteria

From the 6 kingdoms, Cyanobacteria is within a part of the Eubacteria kingdom. It can also be referred to as blue-green algae. The blue-green algae is known to be autotroph as it synthesises carbon. It is unicellular too, therefore is a part of the Eubacteria kingdom.

Archaebacteria

Aeropyrum pernix

aeropyrum pernix is in the archaebacteria kingdom. They are unicellular and therefore will reproduce asexually. They are nonmotile therefore they are a part of this kingdom. The plant kingdom can reproduce asexually but are not unicellular, which would lead to this species as a Archaebacteria.

Crenarchaeota

Crenarchaota belongs in the archaebacterial kingdom. It is unicellular, as for all in the archachaebacterial kingdom are. It is found in marine environment and are also decomposers.

Protista

Aegagropila linnaei

Aegagropila linnaei is considered to be a part of the Protista Kingdom, this is because this species is actually a form of  algae. This species produces oxygen in the water for the other living organisms in the oceans which is another reason why it belongs in the Protista Kingdom.

Ulva lactuca

Ulva lactuca is a type of edible algae of which is a part of the Protista kingdom. It belongs in this kingdom as it is nonmotile and is a multicellular species. Within the Protista kingdom most species are unicellular, but this one is an exception.

Fungus

Phylum basidiomycota

Phylum basidiomycota is in the fungus kingdom. This fungi reproduces asexually, which in the fungus kingdom it can be either. This species is also heterotroph, as it absorbs its food.

 

Phylum ascomycota

Phylum ascomycota is a part of the kingdom of fungus. It is a part of this kingdom because it decomposes organic material, which is the job that the species in the fungus kingdom provide. Another reason is that it can also be used as a food source. This plant specifically is used in mainly truffles.

Plant

Carnegiea gigantea

Carnegiea gigantea is considered to belong in the plant kingdom. This belongs in this kingdom because it goes through photosynthesis. Carnegiea gigantea also is nonmotile which means it does not move around on its own. This proves that this is considered to be in the plant kingdom.

Acer palmatum

Acer palmatum is categorized in the plants kingdom. It is in this kingdom due to it being cellulose which is something found in the cell walls of it, that other organisms in different kingdoms do not have. Another way that Acer palmatum is defined in this kingdom is because of its way of nutrition. They way this plant gets nutrients is it produces its own nutrients (autotroph).

Animal 

Ambystoma mexicanum

Ambystoma mexicanum is in the kingdom of animals, this is because, it is a multicellular organism, and use sexual reproduction to produce offspring. One of the main pars that differentiates this as an animal and not a plant is that the Ambystoma mexicanum is heterotroph and not autotroph.

Equus quagga

Out of the 6 kingdoms, the Equus quagga is in the animal kingdom. This is because they are capable of movement (motile) unlike in some of the other organisms in the kingdoms. They are also a multicellular being.

Math 10 – Week 18 – Solving using elimination & CC reflection

This week during math 10, I learned how to solve using elimination to find solutions for systems. We will be using the two equations 2x -7y =14 and 3x +7 =6. The first step to solving using elimination, is to line up one equation over the other and add them together. Make sure the x values are lined over eachother, and same goes for the other ones. We then have to make sure that there is at least one zero pair in the addition equation. I am looking and see that -7y and +7y create a zero pair because if you add them together, they equal zero. If there is no zero pair, then we would multiply the equations so they would create a zero pair. After adding everything together, we should then have 5x = 20 because of having that zero pair. Then, divide the numbers since we need to isolate for x. We would divide by 5 to be able to get x on its own, but what we do on one side we have to do on the other side; This means we have to divide the 20 by 5 too! We should now have x = 4 which is our answer for our x coordinate. We now have to find the y coordinate. For the y coordinate we are going to take one of the first two equations we started with, and insert the x coordinate that we just found. I’m going to choose the second equation to insert the coordinate into, because the y value in that equation is already a positive number which means there will be less steps you will need to do, when isolating for y. When I insert the x value, I should get 3(4)+7y=6. Since I am trying to isolate to get y, I need to subtract the 12 (3(4)), again what I do on one side I have to do on the other.  This means I should now have 7y = -6 because of subtracting the 12 on the other side. I then divide to get y isolated which in this case I need to divide by 7 on both sides of the equation. After dividing I should now have y = -6/7 which is my y coordinate. I have found my x and y coordinate ( 4, -6/7) although If I want to make sure that these are the correct coordinates, then there is a way to verify the answer. How you verify the answer is you take the x and y coordinates and insert them into the two equations we first started with. We know they are correct when the numbers on the first side of the equal sign, is equal to the number on the other side of the equal sign. An example is 4+6 = 10; we know this equation for this example is correct because on the first side of the equation 4+6 does equal 10. If we got 4+9 =10 then we know we did something wrong when trying to solve the coordinates because 4+9 does not actually equal 10. For the equations we were solving for, we should get 8+6=14 and 12-6= 6 after we do the steps to verify. That is how you solve using elimination to find solutions for systems.

 

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Math 10 – Week 17 – Substitution

This week during Math 10, I learned to use Substitution to find solutions for systems, and will be showing how to do so. We will be using the equations 3x+y=15 and x+2y=10. The first step is to take one of the equations and rearrange it. The question you may be wondering is, which equation should we be rearranging, and what variable are we isolating; the answer is that you can choose either equations to rearrange and same goes for the variable. Although if you pick a variable that has a coefficient of 1 then it will make things a lot easier, as there will be less steps. So your best choice is to choose the variable with the coefficient of 1. Now when we look at both equations, they both have a variable with a coefficient of 1, then you can just choose either or, it won’t make a difference. For this example, I will be using the first equation to isolate. After I choose which equation I am going to isolate, I then rearrange  the equation by isolating y on its own. That will mean I will subtract 3x to isolate y in this equation; but what I do on one side, I have to do to the other side too. I should now have y= -3x + 15. The next step is the insert the equation we just found into the second equation we have. So we will insert the -3x+15 where the y would be in the other equation. We insert it where the y variable would be, since in the first equation we solved we isolated to get y. After we insert the first equation into the second, it should now be x+2( -3x+15) =10. In the equation there should only be the same variables at this step, like there are 2 of the x variables in it, right now. If there was a y  and an x variable still in the equation, we would know that there was something wrong and would need to check over the steps. Next we isolate again! This time we would be isolating the x variable, since there is no y variable to isolate. We will start with the brackets, since in these types of questions we start at the brackets. We will multiply what is in the brackets with 2, since 2 is on the outside of the brackets. Our equation should now be x -6x +30 =10. We then Combine like terms and isolate the x variables and the constants, that mean we subtract the 30 and do the same to the other side. That means we should now have -5x = -20. Lastly we have divide -5x so we only be left with x . If you look at the x variable, we would have to divide it by -5x to get x. Again what we do on one side we do to the other. That means we should now have x= 4. We have found our x coordinate but now we need to find the y coordinate. To find the y coordinate, we have to take the equation we first started with, which is y= -3x+15 and insert our x coordinate we just found into it. It should now be y= -3(4) +15. We then just solve the rest by multiplying what is in the brackets then subtract the 2 numbers to get us Y=3. We have now found both our x and y coordinates (4,3). Although we have to make sure 100% that they are the correct coordinates, so we will verify the solution. I will take the 2 equations we first had which were 3x+y=15 and x+2y=10, then insert the x and y coordinates we found into where the variables would be. If the one side equals the other side of the equation then it is correct. Eg. After solving the equations we should get, 15=15 and 10=10. You should not get 4=15 or 3=10, as that means there is an error in the equation you wrote when finding the coordinates. That Is how you use substation to find solutions for systems.

Math 10 – Week 16 – General Form

This week during Math 10, I learned about General form of the equation. This form is one of the most simple forms as it has no fractions that are used in the equation, which means it isn’t too confusing to read. An example of what a general form equation looks like is ‘‘4x -2y +7 = 0’’. Another example is ‘‘8x -y +2= 0’’. If you look at both of these examples, you can see they both have an ‘‘= 0’’ in both; this is very important to remember that you remember this when writing something into general form, becasue it isn’t an equation anymore if you forget that part! Before we try converting a point slope form equation into a general form equation, there is one other important thing to know when writing point slope form. The x value is always positive, so weather it starts as a negative and you have to move it for it to become a positive, or it already is, it isn’t in general form if the x value isn’t a positive number. Now that we know some of the main rules, we can now try converting a point slope form into general form. An example of slope point form is y -9 = 3 (x -4). The first step to converting this into general form is multiplying the brackets on the equation. So we look at the 3 and we multiply it by the x, same with the 3 and -4. The equation written out should now be y -9= 3x -12. We then have to get the numbers on one side so we have the numbers then the =0. We will have to subtract the numbers on one side then do the same on the other side. The question is what side should we subtract off? Well as i said earlier, we need the x value to be positive, and if we subtract it off and do the same with the other side, then it’ll be negative. That means we will subtract the other side, since we need the x value to stay positive and untouched. We would subtract the y and the -9, and as I said before, what you do on one side you gotta do to they other. Don’t forget to add the =0 to the side you subtracted off of too! We should now have 0 = 3x -y -12 +9. The last step is to combine like terms if there are any. For this, we can combine the -12 and the 9 to now get -3. The equation should now be 0 = 3x -y -12 +9. That s how you find the general form of the equation.

Math 10 – Week 15

This week during Math 10 I learned about finding the y intercepts and the slope from a linear equation. An example of a question you make get that you would need to find out what the y intercept and the slope is y = 5x – 7. We are first going to look at the 5x in the equation. Now since the 5 has an x beside it this means it is the slope in the question. You can see the five as the first number shown as on this equation, or vise versa, so keep a lookout when finding the slope as you do not want to make this simple mistake. If we were to write the slope it would look like m=5. Make sure you have the m when writing this and not a different variable when writing the slope. We then are looking for the y-intercept which is the number without the variable attached to it, in this case it would be the -7. When we write the y-intercept, we write it (x,y) so since we are only looking for the y-intercept the other variable will always be 0, this is the same even with the x-intercepts. If we were to write this -7 we have in this formatting, it should look like this (0,-7). Now we have found both the slope and y-intercept. After finding these we are now able to plot it on a graph if we want, leave it to be, etc. That is how to find the slope and y-intercept from a linear equation.