May 5

Science 10–Biodiversity lab


The first site: Grass field

There are four types go plants.  The Simpson’s index of first site is 58337.5


The second site: Forest

There are also four types of plants. The Simpson’s index of second site is 69.167


They have the same richness, nut site 2 has the most diverse according to the Simpson’s Index.

April 19

Science 10–Constant Velocity


I found two videos, and the first one, I think it is a a little bit funny, and the second one just showed you the definitions. But all of them I think are helpful for us. The videos are also gave some examples to explain the definition of those words.

February 25

Science 10 — lab

  1.  Here is the picture of products.lab
  2. The mass of the bag: 1.9g
  3. The mass of the chemical A: 2.3g
  4. The mass of the chemical B: 1.9g
  5. The mass of the chemical C: 0.5g
  6. The total mss of the products: 5.6g-1.9=3.7g
  7. The total mass of the reactants: 2.3g+1.9+0.5g=4.7g

We lost the mass. I think the reason must be there still some chemicals did not react completely, or even had some chemicals left in the weight boat.

February 21

Compound Discovery Assignment

My element is Ge (germanium)

I researched 2 compounds, they are Germanium dioxide (GeO2), and Germane (GeH4).



  • Germane atomic structure: It is the simplest germanium hydride and one of the most useful compounds of germanium. Like the related compounds silane and methane, germane is tetrahedral. In the room temperature it is poisonous, flammable, corrosive and colorless gas. It burns in air to produce GeO2 and water. It is a very dangerous compound.
  • Germanium dioxide atomic structure: White powder or colorless crystals of tetragonal, hexagonal or amorphous form. Insoluble in water, do not react with water. Gender-based oxide is acidic. Can be dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid generated germanium tetrachloride, also be dissolved in a strong alkaline solution to form germanate.

Discovery: Germane has been detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter.

Common uses: Germanium dioxide used in the electronics industry. As a semiconductor material. It is widely used in the production of germanium dioxide purity metal germanium, germanium compounds, chemical catalysts and pharmaceutical industry, PET resin, electronic devices, etc.

Germane usually by chemical reduction, electrochemical reaction, plasma synthesis synthesized, in the semiconductor industry have important uses. It can use for the production of high purity germanium, for solar cells, for the preparation of two heterojunction bipolar transistor. 

Interesting or unique fact about these compounds:

  • Germanium dioxide: Germanium, chemically stable at room temperature with no air or water vapor effect, but in 600 ~ 700 ℃, the soon to generate germanium dioxide. Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid do not react with it.
  • Germane: Germane spontaneous combustion in air. GeH 4 can be mixed with air instead of chemical changes, temperature was raised to 160 ℃ -183 ℃ gradually oxidized (at low pressure was raised to 320 ℃ need to react).

I like Germane best, because I think it is more dangerous make the experiment more exciting. And the name has m0re challenges to remember.

February 14

Element Discovery Assignment

I chose 32, the element is Germanium, its symbol is Ge. The # of protons : 32.  The # of neutrons : 41. The mass of Ge is 72.6.Under standard conditions, Germanium is a hard but brittle, silvery-white, semi-metallic element, in the carbon group. It is very similar to tin and silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Unlike silicon, it is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in the free (native) state.


Here is a picture of Ge.

in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family in his Periodic Table of the Elements, located between silicon and tin. So many years later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element. Because very few minerals contain it in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry.

Germanium is a semiconductor. The pure element was commonly doped with arsenic, gallium or other elements and used as a transistor in thousands of electronic applications. The physical characteristics of germania (GeO2) are its high index of refraction and its low optical dispersion. These make it especially useful for wide-angle camera lenses, microscopy, and for the core part of optical fibers. Because germanium is transparent in the infrared it is a very important infrared optical material, that can be readily cut and polished into lenses and windows. And it also can use into phosphors, metallurgy, and chemotherapy.

  • Interesting or unique fact about this element.

Elemental germanium oxidizes slowly to GeO2 at 250 °C.

Two oxides of germanium are known: germanium dioxide (GeO2, germania) and germanium monoxide, (GeO). The dioxide, GeO2 can be obtained by roasting germanium disulfide (GeS2), and is a white powder that is only slightly soluble in water but reacts with alkalis to form germinates. The monoxide, germanous oxide, can be obtained by the high temperature reaction of GeO2 with Ge metal. The dioxide (and the related oxides and germanates) exhibits the unusual property of having a high refractive index for visible light, but transparency to infrared light.