Guiding Questions

1. He started working on the National Policy in 1876 because he needed a platform to convince all of Canada, his ideas and intentions. The voters agreed with Macdonald’s mission, and he and his party returned to running office.

2. The  three parts of the National Policy were Protective Tariffs, increased immigration, and the CPR. The Protective Tariffs raised former tariffs from 15% to 17.5-35%, this benefited Canada’s economy because this made people stop buying goods from America, and started to purchase Canadian goods more. Increased immigration also benefited Canada’s economy because more people meant more farmers, which means more crops, which equals profit. If a person were to pay a $10 fee, they would receive land as well. Finally, the CPR. and this on is crucial because it would be a quicker way of transporting troops for the defense of Canada. Also, it would help with transporting people and goods.

3. Macdonald hired George Stephen, president of the Bank of Montreal, Donald Smith, Chief Commissioner of the Hudson’s Bay Company, and James J. Hill, a coal trader. Together they made a profit of over $17 million!

4. Macdonald promised the Syndicate $25 million in cash, a land grant of 25 million acres, and a monopoly west of Lake Superior for 20 years.

5. The new CPR Syndicate was to complete the railway within 10 years.

6. They changed the route of the railway because it was going through Saskatoon and Edmonton which had fertile land. They wanted absolute control of the project so they moved it away from the land speculators.

7. The Syndicate needed a new general manager for the railway, a person with lots of energy, and so William Van Horne was chosen.

8. Van Horne arrival made an immediate impact, speeding up the process of construction. He was able to have 800 km laid in a year and another 800 km the following year.

9. By the end of 1883, the company was running out of money, and they were about to build the railways through rocky BC, which would cost a whole lot more money. George Stephen  and Donald Smith each donated their fortunes to provide cash for construction, but even that was not enough.In 1884, the Canadian government finally passed a bill that provided another $22.5 million for the railway. But even after cutting expenses, in 1884 they ran out of money again.

10. Kicking Horse Pass

11. It required less time to get to the coast because you were able to travel farther South and you could avoid the large mountain ranges in the interior.

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