Arithmetic Sequence

Sequence: -13 -10 -7 – ….. +62      Determine the sum of the arithmetic sequence

62 = -13 + (n-1) (3)

+13    +13       —–> 75 = (n-1) (3) —–> \frac{75}{3} = (n-1) (\frac{3}{3}) ——-> 25=n-1  =    n = 26

/prt 2   S_{26} =  \frac{26}{2} (-13+62)   —–>   S_{26} = 13 (49)    —->    S_{26} = 637

 

Week 2 Convergent / Divergent

Convergent – Where an infinite geometric series that’s sum gets so small it is almost hardly changing the sum. There are two types of infinite geometric convergent series; the first series gets mutiplied by a number less than one, and gradually getting smaller and smaller, but never reaching 0. The second series, R is less than 0 but greater than -1, and makes the series gradually smaller almost reaching 0 dipping up and below the positive and negitive line. Convergent is easy to calculate, and can be using S\frac{a}{1 - r}.

Ex: 2 + 1 + \frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{4} + \frac{1}{8}

——>   S\frac{2}{1-1/2}    =     S\frac{2}{1/2} = 4 ——->  S = 4

Divergent – Is the opposite of Convergent, divergent is an infinte geometric series that increases and becomes larger, so large that it becomes almost impossible to find the sum of the infinite series. Just like Convergent, there are two types of Divergent series that can apear; first is a series that increases constanly upward positively being mutiplied by a number grater than 1 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64….; the second is one that dips into the red when multiplied by a number less than -1. 2 – 8 + 32 – 128 + 512….. It is impossible to calculate a infinite divergent geometric series, and can’t be used by the equation S\frac{a}{1 - r}.

My Arithmetic Sequence

Sequence: 31 + 35 + 39 + 43…..       Find t_{50} & S_{50}

t_n= t_1+(n-1)(d)

Answer/ t_{50} = 31+ (50-1)(4)

=  t_{50} = 31+ (49)(4)

=  t_{50} = 31+ 196   =  t_{50} = 227

——-> S_{50}\frac{50}{2} (31+227)

=   S_{50} = 25 (258)   —>   S_{50} = 6450

Wonder Project – How can we make observations about Jupiter’s surface, if our scanners can’t even detect anything through the storm?

sci10astrowonder2018What it’s made of: Jupiter’s upper atmosphere is made of hydrogen and helium and about. hydrogen and helium, with the last small percent composed of other elements. Lower in Jupiter’s atmosphere, scientists have found traces of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds as well as small amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons. There are even more compounds like carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. Even crystals of frozen Ammonia have been found in the outer layer of Jupiter’s atmosphere.

How fast do they go: Jupiters storm can reach over 400 km an hour. The highest speed ever recorded is 348 miles per hour which are 560 km an hour.

How deep is the storm: Scientist haven’t yet seen what is underneath Jupiters storm. Although Jupiters storm was only thought to be only km’s deep, due to the sunlight being unable to pass through. But now with new technology, scientist have found Jupiter’s storm might be 30 miles deep or 50km’s. Yet still, we don’t yet know if the storms end there since we haven’t even seen the bottom yet.

Questions scientists have: So how can we make observations like Jupiter has a solid core and ice if there is so much debris we can’t even see it?  Scientist has made observations about that if Jupiter didn’t have a solid core it wouldn’t be able to collect the hydrogen and helium from the nebula without some sort of force (gravity) to pull those elements in. But scientist think that it doesn’t mean it has one today! Scientist’s also think that the core could possibly have shrunken due to metallic hydrogen or hot liquids mixing with the core. Being that both statements could possibly be true, scientists still think mainly that there is a core, but could also imply that there isn’t one anymore. In the end, both can be wrong maybe Jupiter never had a core and aliens built Jupiter to live under a wall of storms. But the two answer’s scientist came up with are the most likely with the facts that we gathered. 

Fun fact: How can Jupiter be so hot if its five times farther from the sun than the earth is to the sun? Scientists believe they’ve found “the smoking gun!” There are two types of energy that cause heat in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere. Acoustic waves, and sound waves, when they crash together in Jupiter’s red dot and rise to the upper atmosphere. Creating a lot of heat!

How many Earths can fit inside: Jupiter Red Dot is said to hold about three Earths.

Resources

http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=T003&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=1&docId=GALE%7CA537591507&docType=Brief+article&sort=Relevance&contentSegment=&prodId=GPS&contentSet=GALE%7CA537591507&searchId=R2&userGroupName=43dcbs&inPS=true  Basic Info 

https://www.universetoday.com/15132/weather-on-jupiter/ 

https://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2016/0728/Why-is-Jupiter-so-darn-hot-The-roiling-Great-Red-Spot-may-solve-the-mystery   why it heats up

https://www.universetoday.com/14470/does-jupiter-have-a-solid-core/  does Jupiter have a core?

https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/mission?show=hs_mission_story_how-do-we-study-jupiters-interior Video- 

  1. What questions did you need to research in order to research your topic? I searched up things like; how deep is the storm, how fast it goes, does it have a solid core, why is Jupiter super hot.
  2. What new or familiar digital tools did you try to use as you worked through this project? I used websites that were new in the form of that I haven’t used them, but the same in how I got the websites. I got some of my websites from the school web, but I got to try new sources from them.
  3. What was the process you used to investigate the topic? I made my topic off one of the school websites that were really helpful, as well as gathering ideas from other sources like videos. After the topic idea was created, I finalized and twerked my question to make it sound much better, from gathering different feedback from other students. Then found valid websites from the school web, and went from there on to finishing my project.
  4. How did you verify and cite the information you found? I used the school web to find already checked and valid resources, but ones that I didn’t get from school, I checked the website’s checking who made it, time of update, and other sources.
  5. How did the process of completing this challenge go? What could you have done better? I felt more rushed trying to fix my question into making it better because I felt I wasn’t able to do it without changing the entire direction I wanted to go with the project. In the end, I found a way, even if it was a bit changed, but believe that to make things easier on myself I should try working on getting some more feedback and help from others to see if my question is valid, and or build a brainstorm, or look online for help.

By: Kaiden Hofmann

Epigenetic’s !

Biotech and Genetics

Epigenetic’s

Kaiden Hofmann – March 9, 2018

About Epigenetic’s

What is an Epigenetic “is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.” (WIKI description) How epigenetic’s affect the epigenome. What that means is that the epigenome is the physical structure of the genome and the DNA is first wrapped around the proteins and is covered by chemical tags. Unlike the DNA, the epigenome is changeable by outside influences (like stress, and diet.) The epigenome adapts according to our changing environment. How the epigenome is affected by the outside world is by not having enough methanol group attached to your DNA structure. Methanol group is a part of a process the nutrients we extract from food enter methanol pathways where they are changed into nutrients for our body to use. That’s why having a high diet in this department can cause you to have a heather life.

Folic acid, B vitamins, and SAM-e (S-Adenosyl methionine are components in the creating methanol.

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Advancements in epigenetic’s changing the world

We have learned that epigenetics is hugely not only related to physical appearance but have a huge impact on aging. When someone says “don’t eat that you’ll die earlier”; it’s absolutely true, it’s just where talking about it from a molecular standpoint. How your epigenome does this is by if the child was not fed enough of the nutrients needed for enough methanol to be created during the pregnancy phase, the child would be more likely to be prone to obesity, and overweight. It is still possible to regain the loss methanol that is needed to go through a couple of generations to fix. How it is connected to aging is how methanol is part of the Replication connected to diet and how you eat, is so that what you eat hugely determines if you live longer, (saying if you don’t have any diseases passed in the family.)

That’s why studying and the knowledge already may lead to in the future where we are able to manipulate the epigenome and we might have the capability of living substantially longer.

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This photo shows two mice that came from the same mother, and each mouse was fed different diets. Mouse A (brown mouse) was fed a methyl-rich diet well Mouse B (yellow mouse) was fed a complete unmethylated diet. Mouse A was brown and healthy, well mouse B the (yellow mouse) was obese and prone to diabetes and cancer. When mouse A was pregnant mouse a made healthy brown mice. When the mouse was fed the methyl-rich diet her children most where brown and healthy. This showed how methyl was able to change and influence health in the mouse; then mirroring onto their kids.