In terms of maximizing diffusion the 1cm x 1cm x 1cm cube worked the best. This size was the most effective because it had the most surface area in comparison to volume at 6:1. This factor is important because it allowed the cube to be the most exposed for its size and diffuse the quickest.
Cells don’t grow to be very large because the larger they grow the greater their volume becomes which creates a worse ratio of surface area to volume. Whereas with 3 cubes with surface 3:1, 5:2, and 4:1 the cube with the surface area of 4:1 would diffuse the best. I know this because in our lab the cube with the 6:1 ratio worked best where as the 3:1 ratio was second best and the 2:1 ratio was the worst, so higher surface area : lower volume is the best for diffusion.
Our bodies adapt this by making our cells have greater surface area while trying to keep volume low, this is done by cell division, so that every time a cell grows in volume that is inefficient it divides. Bacteria works in the same way and therefore could never grow to be the size of a small fish. Because cells like these rely on cell division to survive and reproduce.
The advantages of being multi cellular is that there isn’t a limitation placed on growth, lifespans are longer as cells can reproduce while single cellular organisms can die.
mRNA differs from DNA because it is single stranded, has a ribose sugar oppose to a deoxyribose and instead of thymine it has the nucleotide Uracil. It is easy to see some of the differences in the picture below.
The process of transcription begins the DNA unwinding into single strands with the helicase.
Once the DNA is single stranded the polymerase comes in and makes a complimentary base paired RNA strand. A-U, C-G. Therefore copying the correct nucleotides onto the RNA strand. While also creating hydrogenbonds between the RNA and DNA.
Once this is finished the RNA disconnects from the DNA and the DNA comes back together. So that there is a RNA strand with the correct printed nucleotides and the DNA double helix.
Overall this wasnt as effective as the last few pipe cleaner labs because I felt that this one was a little more confusing and didn’t show the processes as well.
Protein synthesis begins with Initiation. Initiation is when the mRNA is read by the ribosome P group and the tRNA translates it into an amino acid.
Afterwards is elongation. Elongation is when the mRNA continues to move through the ribosome and the A group reads the next codon and the tRNA brings in another amino acid.
After this step the tRNA leaves the P site and the amino acid moves onto the tRNA in the A site.
Once this occurs the tRNA moves over to the p-site to continue growing the chain.
Once the chain has reached the stop codon then termination occurs and the chain ends.
Afterwards the ribosome lets go of the mRNA and tRNA lets go of the polypeptide.
Overall, I think activity was good at explaining the process of protein synthesis but it was difficult the instructions were hard to grasp, but once I understood it, it helped me understand protein synthesis.