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# Stop- motion Meiosis video

Video made by; Jayna, Jesse, and Stephanie

When Creating this project, our group worked pretty well together, and didn’t have any arguments. We all also did our equal share of work in order to make this video possible. I helped edit the video, made the script and did some of the voice overs. In the actual final product of the video, I think it is kind of choppy, and doesn’t flow very well as a whole. I am not very proud of it, but not ashamed either. I think with the voice over, there can be a better explanation, but I don’t think we shouldn’t have used paper do do the cell outline. If I were to re-do this project, I would have used clay to do the outline, and taken more pictures to make the video go smoother. Over all I think that we did good as a team, but I wish we could re-do the video.

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# The life of a gene mutation.

Hello. My name is Cella Jr. I am living inside a young girl who living in Africa with the name Asya. She is only 13, but I am a trouble maker. I like to make her life even more difficult than it already is. So when she was born, I came into her body, from both of her of her parents, who were ‘carriers’ back in the good old days. Instead of those ugly round donut-like blood cells, I provide her with a sickle cell in her blood, looking kind of like a crescent moon. From her parents, Asya inherited two abnormal copies of the haemoglobin gene which is me. Then I caused the odd shape of her blood cells. I am causing Asya to have sickle cell disease.

I have a lot of friends like me here in Africa. We are very common here. I also have some relatives out in India, very distant relatives. I am a abnormal Hemoglobin gene located on chromosome 11, that creates the sickle shame of Asya’s blood cell’s. If Asya is ever feels stressed, is dehydrated, in high altitude, or is involved in temperature changes, I can easily cause an attack on her. Most of my attacks cause her blood tubes to be blocked, so not much blood flow can happen. I also cause her to not carry enough oxygen inside her blood cells. My blood cells don’t move easily through her body as well because they are rough, sticky, and of coarse are sickle shaped, just like my families last name. Sickle. I’m Cella Jr Sickle.

I often cause Asya to obtain a lot of pain, from this, and damage to her organs. I know she hates me, but that’s fine, because I am like her bully. I am mean to her, and she can never ignore the pain from me, because I am always there. You could say that I am very rude, and that is very true, so I don’t care about the criticism. I make Asya feel weak and tired, and now she is only expected to live 40 to 60 years.

In her Hemoglobine gene, I will stay, brought here by her mother and father who were both carriers, I will make my hosts life shorter, and cause her a lot of pain in the past, present, and future. I wont be sorry, and never will be, for all the pain that I have caused. From the blockage in her blood stream to the low oxygen levels flowing through her body. I am doing my job very well.

Acquire:

For the backbone of this project, I researched on the internet. However, I did gain lots of my knowledge about sickle cell disease during class from my science teacher Mr. Campbell.

I also watched two youtube video’s

I think that I could have been more accurate with my findings if I didn’t only use the internet to do all of my research. I think that I could have spent more time reading books, or contacting people that actually have sickle cell disease.

Analyze:

Apply:

When I researched sickle cell disease, I chose websites that where good and official, and watched a youtube video about a girl who actually had sickle cell disease. For most of my websites, I used medical addresses,  that have done a lot of prior research on this disease. Most of the websites I used were written by doctors, of from the government. I also made sure not to use the ones that were adds, or trying to advertise anything in there website.

Asses:

In the beginning of this project, I originally tried to start my story, without doing any research. I went and started to write, and as I found more info, I would add it along the way. After I figured out that this was not the right path to go, I had a good process of collecting my knowledge and writing it down into my story. To do better, I should have given myself a longer timeline to complete this project, and not wait until the last minute.

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# Everything I know about Exponents

1)Represent repeated multiplication with exponents:

$3\cdot3\cdot3\cdot3\cdot3$ = $3^5$

You can count how many times the base is being multiplied by itself, and re-wright it as an exponent for how many times the base is being repeated

2)Describe how Powers represent repeated multiplication

$4^4 = 4\cdot4\cdot4\cdot4$

You multiply the base by itself however many times the exponent represents.

3)Demonstrate the difference between the exponent and the base by building models of a given power such as $2^3$ and $3^2$

If you had a model of $2^3$ , the length of this model will be 2, the width of this model will be 2, and the Height of this model will also be 2, in a cube formation. If we had a model of $3^2$ then the model would have a base of 3, and a height of 3, in a square pattern.

4)Demonstrate the difference between to given powers in which the exponent and the base are interchanged by using repeated multiplication

$3^4 = 3\cdot3\cdot3\cdot3$ is not equal to  $4^3 = 4\cdot4\cdot4$

$3^4$ is 3 multiplied by itself 4 times. $4^3$ is 4 multiplied by itself 3 times. The answers are far apart and do not mean or equal the same thing. $3^4 = 81$ and $4^3 = 64$

5)Evaluate powers with integral bases (excluding 0) with whole exponents

when you evaluate powers with Integral bases, and whole number exponents, you use repeated multiplication. For example:

1. $4^2 = 4\times4 = 16$

2. $3^2 = 3\times3 = 9$

3. $2^2 = 2\times2 = 4$

4. $1^2= 1\times1 = 1$

5.$(-2)^2 = (-2)\times(-2) = 4$

6)Explain the roll of Parenthesis in powers by evaluating a given set of powers such as, $(-2)^4$ $(-2^4)$ and $-2^4$

$(-2)^4$ is the same as $(-2)\cdot(-2)\cdot(-2)\cdot(-2)$. The base of this power is(-2) and is being multiplied by itself 4 times. $(-2^4)$ and $-2^4$ both mean the same thing. They both are equal to $(-1)\cdot2\cdot2\cdot2\cdot2\cdot2$. the base is 2, and the -1 is the coefficient.

7)Explain the exponent law for multiplying powers with the same base.

When you multiply any power that has the same base, you can add the exponents together, and it will equal the same thing. for example $3^2\cdot3^4 = (3)(3)\times(3)(3)(3)(3) = 3^{2+4} = 3^6$

With a coefficient, you multiply the coefficient, and then add the exponents.

$3x^3\times2x^5$

1st, $3\times2 = 6$ Multiply the coefficients

2nd $x^{3+5} = x^8$ Add the exponents.

3rd $6x^8$

When dividing, you subtract the exponents, if they have the same base. For example $\frac{4^6}{4^3} = 4^{6-3} = 4^3$

With a coefficient, you divide the coefficients, then subtract the exponents

$\frac{4x^7}{2x^3}$

1st $4\div2 = 2$ Divide the exponents

2nd $x^{7-3} = x^4$

3rd $2x^4$

8) Explain the exponent laws for raising a product and quotient to an exponent.

When you raise a product of a quotient to an exponent, you have to use the power law. You multiply the exponents together.

$(2^2)^5 = 2^{2\times5} = 2^{10} = 1024$

9) Explain the law for powers with an exponent of zero.

Any number besides zero raised to the power of zero will always equal one. For example, if I were to start at $\frac{3^3}{3^3} = 3^{3-3} = 3^0 = 1$ another way to explain it, is to use repeated multiplication. $\frac{3^3}{3^3} = \frac{3\times3\times3}{3\times3\times3} = \frac{1}{1} = 1$

10) Use patterns to show that a power with an exponent of zero is equal to one.

1. $3^4 = 81$

2.$3^3 = 27$

3.$3^2 = 9$

4.$3^1 = 3$

5. $3^0 = 1$

As you go down this scale, each time the answer is divided by three, so in the end, 3 divided by 3 is one, so $3^0$ is one.

11.  Explain the law for powers with negative exponents.

If you have a power with a negative exponent, you can turn it into  a fraction using its reciprocal at the fraction, with a positive exponent.

$3^{-5} = \frac{1}{3^5}$

12. Use patterns to explain the negative exponent law

1.$2^3 = 8$

2.$2^2 = 4$

3. $2^1 = 2$

4. $2^0 = 1$

5. $2^{-1} = \frac{1}{2}$

6. $2^{-2} = \frac{1}{4}$

as you go down in this table, each time the quotient divides by two, so 1 divided by 2 equals $\frac{1}{2}$

13. I can apply the exponent laws to powers with both integral and variable bases.

When you add in a variable to any exponent laws, it works the same as with any integral. $2^4\cdot2^2 = 2^{4+2} = 2^6$. with variables it is the same. $x^4\cdot x^2 = x^{4+2} = x^6$

14. I can identify the error in a simplification of an expression involving powers.

15)  Use the order of operations on expressions with powers.

$\frac{3^3\times3^{-1}}{4^2}\times\frac{2^3}{2^2}$

first I would simplify the exponents on the threes. $3^{3+(-1)} = 3^2$. Then I would solve for all the exponents, and that would result in $\frac{9}{16}\times\frac{2}{1}$. That will equal to $\frac{18}{16} = \frac{9}{8}$

16)  Determine the sum and difference of two powers.

There isn’t any laws in order to find the sum and the difference of two powers, you just have to solve for it yourself by using BEDMAS to fint the answer. $4^3 - 4^2 = 64 - 16 = 48$,  $5^2 - 2^3 = 25 - 8 = 17$

17)  Identify the error in applying the order of operations in an incorrect solution.

$7^2 - 3^2\times2^3$ = $[7-3]\times2^{2-2\times3}$ = $8^0 = 1$

first of all, you need to follow BEDMAS when completing these problems. one of the first errors is, they multiplied all the bases together, which you are never supposed to do in any power related law. then, they added and multiplied the exponents, and did this in the wrong order according to BEDMAS. How you are supposed to answer this question correctly, is first, you evaluate all the exponents. this bring us to $49 - 9\times8$ = 49 – 72 = -23.

18) Use powers to solve problems (measurement problems)

if you had a 6 cm side length of a shaded square with another square with a side length of 4 cm of an un-shaded square inside, how mush of the shaded part is left.

To right out this question is power format, would be $6^2cm - 4^2cm$  and would equal 36cm – 16cm = $20 cm^2$

19) Use powers to solve problems (growth problems)

If my dog weighs 40 pounds as a puppy, and doubles his body weight every year, how much will he weigh by 3 years? 4 years? 6 years?

In 3 years: $40\times2^3$ = 320

In 4 years: $40\times2^4$ = 640

In 6 years: $40\times2^6$ = 2560

20) Applying the order of operations on expressions with powers involving negative exponents and variable bases.

$3^{-3}\times y^3\div y^{-2}\times y^3$

1. $3^{-3} = \frac{1}{9}$

2. $y^{3-([-2]+3)} = y^2$

3. $\frac{y^2}{9}$

When answering these questions, you have to use BEDMAS, in the correct order. In this case, I start with Answering the exponents. with these exponents, there is still a way to simplify. I subtracted the exponents on the alike bases. Then I followed the rest in Order, remembering the negative exponents rule.

Anything else that I know about exponents…

Anything raised to the power of one, is it itself, $6^1 = 6$

Positive 1 raised to the power of any whole number will always be 1. $1^4 = 1\times1\times1\times1 = 1$

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# LateX coding

Example 1, exponents: $5^2$

Example 2, two digit exponents: $5^{20}$

Example 3, fractions: $\frac{3}{5}$

Example 4,multiplication: $3x^2\cdot5x^7$,

Example 5, division: $\frac{25}{11}\div\frac{3^4}{5}$

Example 6, size: $6^{-5}$

Example 7, color: $6^7$

Example 8, background colour, $6^9$

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# Science App reveiw

Define:

Find an app that will be useful for our learning in science 9, and represent something that we will be introduced to this year.

Discover:

Will this app cost money?

Do I already have an useful app?

Will this app help with my learning in Science 9?

How will I find a good app to use?

Dream:

My dream for my app is to give people an easier way to understand chemistry, and the Electrons protons and neutrons inside the atoms. I also hope that this app could give people a better understanding of the elements.

Design:

First I plan on finding an app that if fit for my description. Once I find the right app, I will review the app, and make sure it is fit for science 9. If the app represents my cause well, then I will make sure it can be understood easily, is fun to play, and you can actually learn from it. Once I find a great app, I will review it, and post my findings.

Deliver:

For this project, I have chosen to evaluate an app called Nuclear. The aim of this game, is to unlock all of the elements of the periodic table, and make each element stable. This app will solve people’s misunderstanding within the elements in the periodic table and help people progress their learning of the previous knowledge. It is attempted to solve any questions and unknown knowledge on the working of atoms and how they may react when they are unstable. How this app may help the users build skill and knowledge, is through the trial and error of the construction of the atoms. Once you start, you start with the Hydrogen atom, with one proton neutron and electron. As you progress in this game, you have to add any amount of Electrons to how many protons and neutrons that you have, and add a new element on the periodic table. The goal of this game is to unlock all of the atoms on the Periodic table. The only way to make each electron stable is to have an even number of protons and electrons inside each atom. This helps us learn how to keep the atom neutral when in the periodic table. My dream for this app would mean, eventually young minds could be able to create new technology to make more compounds that could be useful in our future, and to give everyone a better understanding of the elements. This app is also very self explanatory. When you first start and open this app, you go through a tutorial, and it tells you what you do to create a Hydrogen atom, it tells you to first take a neutron, and drop it into the nucleus, then a proton, and finally an electron. Once you create this, it tells you to try to create your next element. After the tutorial the game is pretty easy to understand, all you need to do is try to add electrons protons and neutrons to make the next element stable. When you first finish the tutorial however, it is a bit confusing on how to get to the next element, because it doesn’t explain what you did wrong and how many protons and neutrons you have in the nucleus. This app Introduces a new and fun way to explore the building blocks of all life, the periodic table, and helps us find the understanding of how all atoms are neutral.

App description:

This app is called Nuclear and Is available for free in the app store. As stated above, this app introduces us to the elements in the periodic table. You start with the Helium atom, and once more Protons and neutrons are in, you add electrons until you unlock a new element.

Debrief:

In order to find a good scientific app, it took a very long time to find a good one that actually represented things that we may learn in grade 9 science. I went through a lot of apps that I thought would make the cut, but only this one represented skills that we need in grade 9 science. Once I found and explored this app, I discovered what this app could be used for, and how it is useful. I like the way it showed the Atoms in two models; Bohr diagram, and an “atom” diagram.