Vaccines, Antibiotics, Hormones

Production of Vaccines, Antibiotics, Hormones

Production of vaccine.

Vaccines are the things that protect humans from infectious diseases. Vaccines take 6 – 22 months to produce. It takes 5 steps to make them.

  1. The first step of making vaccine is generating the antigen that will trigger the immune response.
  2. Second step is to release and isolate the antigen. The antigen will be separated from the cells and isolated from the proteins and other parts of the growth medium that are still present.
  3. In the third step the antigen needs to be purified in order to have a high quality.
  4. The fourth step is to add to other components. Including the adjuvant, which is a material that enhances the immune response to a supplied antigen. Due to antigens and other ingredients mixing, combination vaccines are harder to make.




Antibiotics are medicine for infections. Penicillin is the first antibiotic that was discovered and the greatest advancement in antibiotics, in 1928 Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin by accident. He came back from a vacation and noticed that few glass plates were open. The glass tube for bacteria were opened and some mold go into it. The mold killed the bacteria and when Fleming came back, he found out. That is how penicillin was made.

Antibiotics tend to have side effects. The most common side effect from antibiotics are stomachaches and nausea. Other side effects include sun sensitivity, headaches etc.



A hormone is a chemical that is made by specialist cells, usually within an endocrine gland, and it is released into the bloodstream to send a message to another part of the body. It is often refereed to as a “chemical messenger”.

Growth hormone is basically a protein hormone. It stimulates growth, cell reproduction, cell regeneration and in boosting metabolism. It is important in human development.

Hormones of Thyroid. Thyroid gland is a part of the endocrine. It produces and releases thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. The thyroid gland releases two hormones, Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine which helps in controlling the metabolism of human body.


Insulin is a hormone that allows the body to use glucose or sugar from carbohydrates in the food for energy

Estrogen is a female sex hormone released by the ovaries. It is responsible for reproduction, menstruation and menopause. Excess of estrogen in the female body increases the risk of breast cancer, uterine cancer, depression, etc. If estrogen level is less in female body, it leads to acne, skin lesions, thinning skin, hair loss etc.

Progesterone is a hormone that plays an important role in maintain pregnancy

Prolactin enables breast feed

Testosterone is a male sex hormone

Serotonin is a mood boosting effect hormone or also known as nature’s feel good chemical. It is associated with learning and memory, regulating sleep. Digestion, regulates mood and some muscular functions.

Cortisol is produced by the adrenal gland, which helps you stay healthy and energetic. Its main role is to control physical and psychological stress. In danger conditions, it increases heart rate, blood pressure, reputation etc.

Adrenaline, also known as emergency hormone, inhabits quick reactions which makes the individual to think and respond quickly to stress. It increases the metabolic rate, dilation of blood vessels going to the heart and the brain. During stressful situation adrenaline quickly releases in to the blood and sends impulses to the organ to create a specific response




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Science wonder project

How does understanding the affects that will occur if our sun disappears help us prepare for this outcome?

Without the sun the earth would be a frozen planet in the first year so the only way to survive such temperatures would be to get as close to the core as possible.

We would not be able to breathe because solar energy is turned into oxygen through plants, but good news is that we would still be able to breathe for the first 1000 years because there would be enough oxygen to last us the first 1000 years on earth, after that we would all die.

At first, we would not notice for the first 8 light minutes (light minutes are the distance light can travel in a minute. We would not be in the gravitational pull of the sun and start flying around in space in a straight line.

When the sun burns out earth would be cold enough to freeze the top layer of the ocean but creatures that live deep under water won’t have a problem.

In order to survive we would need to dig as close to the earths core as possible and start a civilization there, or we would need to find a way to live at the bottom of the ocean without our bodies being compressed into nothing.