The War in Europe- Attain your knowledge

Battle Date Components Outcome/Significance


First week of April- April 24, 1915 ·         Canadian troops were moved to a bulge in the Allied line- the Salient- in the front of the City of Ypres

·         Germans held higher grounds in the north; two British divisions were on the Canadian’s right and a French division of their left

·         On April 22, for the first time, the Germans released 160 tons of chlorine gas, following an intensive artillery bombardment, in attempt to remove the Salient

-This successfully left a gaping 6.5 kilometer hole in the Allied line

-Germans only advanced 3.25 km because they had a limited offense and the German troops were suspicious of the gas

·      The Canadian troops fought to close the gap and    launched two more disastrous attacks near St. Julien.

-Little ground was won and there were many causalities

·      On April 24, the Germans targeted the Canadian line to try to obliterate the Salient once and for all.

-Canadians held in until reinforcements arrived

·         In 48 hours, 6035 Canadians, one man in every three, became casualties of whom more than 2,000 died

·         No major ground was one for either side

·         This was Canada’s first major appearance on a European battlefield, and they had established themselves as a formidable fighting force.



July 1- November 18, 1916 ·         Canadian commander, Lieutenant- General Sir Julian Byng,

·         The Allies planned to launch on the Western, Eastern, and Italian Fronts; and the region of Somme was chosen as a joint for French and British assaults.

-This was plan was ruined when the Germans seized the initiative and chose to attack Verdun (which France valued heavily), which caused mainly the French but also the German army to suffer a depletion in their number of soldiers.

·         Sir Douglas Haig, the new British commander, hasten the Somme offensive to attempt to relieve Verdun.

-By the end of June, Haig had planned his assault that would destroy the enemy line and allow for the British cavalry to attack the rear areas of Germany. Unfortunately for him, Germany had strengthened their defense

·         On July 1, thousands of British and French troops across No Man’s land on a front of over 40 km towards German positions.

·         The “Byng boys” moved from the fields of Flanders to the Somme, on order to defend the front line in the village of Courcelette.

·         On September 15, the Canadian Corps assaulted a 2,000 meter sector west of Courcelette with the help of a creeping barrage and the tank (a new weapon) and successfully captured Regina Trench (on November 11), advanced to Desire Trench and then rejoined the Corps opposite Vimy Ridge.


·         57,000 British soldier casualties in one day

·         1st Battalion of the Newfoundland Regiment lost two thirds of its entire strength

·         The French  and the British divisions in the south had gained nearly all their objectives, but the rest of the British sector had gained almost nothing.

·         Allies suffered some 650,000 casualties

·         Both sides had about 200,000 killed

·         Germans refer to it as das Blutbad, meaning blodd bath

·         Canada had 24.029 casualties

·         Canadians confirmed their reputation as hard hitting shocked troops

·         Lloyd George said,” the Canadians… were brought along to head the assault in one great battle after another [leaving] the Germans … prepared for the worst.”

Vimy Ridge


March 20- April 9, 1917 ·         In March 1917, the Germans withdrew from Reims and Soissons, to strengthen new defenses in the Hindenburg Line.

·         Previous attempts to take Vimy had failed, but did succeed in pushing the Germans in to a position where they could not maneuver with the Douai Plain behind them.

·         Canadian commanders produced elaborate plans. Engineers dug tunnels to the ridge, roads and light railways were improved, and a vast mass of supplies of every type were readied. The troops also practiced their roles until every man was familiar with the ground and tactics expected of him.

·         Preliminary bombardment began on March 20, followed by crushing blows on April 2, and on April 8, all was ready for the mobilization of infantry.

·         On April 9, the infantry attacked and took control of the crest of the Ridge that day, and spent the following three days successfully taking control of hill 145 and the Pimple.

·         10,602 Canadian casualties

·         First time that four division of the Canadian Corps had attacked and triumphed together

·         Four Canadians won the Victoria Cross

·         Canadian Corps received its first Canadian commander when Sir Arthur Currie was promoted to lieutenant- general.



July- November 1917 ·         Canadian forced were ordered to relieve the decimated Anzac forces in the Ypres sector and capture Passchendaele.

·         Lieutenant-General Currie protested that the battlefield’s conditions were too poor but was overruled.

·         On October 26, 20,000 men under heavy fire, inched their way across the battlefield.

·         On October 30, the two British divisions and the Canadians began their attack on Passchendaele itself

-they gained the ruined outskirts of the village

·         By November 11, Passchendaele became part of the Canadian Calvary.

·         Total attacker killed: 4,028

·         Canadian Casualties: 15654

·         Not strategically significant, but it became well known because of the Canadian and British victory in the rough conditions


The Chain of Friendship

  1. Identify the countries:
    1. “If you touch me I’ll”- represents Serbia
    2. “If you make a move I’ll” –represents Austria-Hungary
    3. “If you hit that little feller I’ll” – represents Russia
    4. “If you strike my friend I’ll”- represents Germany
    5. “If you hit him” – represents France
    6. “Ho there. If you chaps”- represents Britain
  2. In the second slide, the men who are circled in blue are on one side and the men circled in yellow are on the opposing side. Team blue consists of the countries: Serbia, Russia, France and Britain. All four of these countries are in conflict with the yellow side which are the countries Austria-Hungary and Germany. This illustrates the two distinct sides that fought against each other during WWI.
  3. The circled character on slide three, represents the country of Serbia. It is represented as a child because, in comparison to the large Austria-Hungarian Empire, it lacks size and power. Also, it was a country that was dependent on other countries for defensive help.
  4. The three men that are circled represent Germany, France and Britain. All three of these countries are the furthest back on The Chain of Friendship because they joined the war later than the other countries in this cartoon. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, however, Germany only declared war on Serbia-Russia on August 1, 1914. France becomes part of the war on August 3, 1914, when Germany declares war on it. And Britain declares war on Germany after Germany violated Belgium’s neutrality on August 4, 1914.
  5. The two men that are circled on slide five represent Germany and Britain. These countries fought on opposite side of the war. The reason that they are circled is that Germany was the cause of Britain joining the war. On August 4, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, who had declared themselves neutral. This caused Britain to declare war on Germany, and thus join the war.
  6. WWI began when Austria, with German support, told Serbia to punish those involved in the assassination and suppress nationalism on July 23, and Serbia did not allow an Austrian inquiry on the matter. This caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, which then caused Russia to order a general mobilization on July 31, in support of Serbia. Then, Germany holds true to its word by declaring war on Serbia-Russia on August 1, 1914. This is followed by France ordering a general mobilization which causes Germany to declare war on France on August 3, 1914. The following day, Germany invades Belgium, who had declared themselves neutral, which then causes Britain to declare war on Germany for violating Belgium’s neutrality.
  7. Analysis
    1. This cartoon was written by the perspective of the Serbian perspective. The reason for this belief is that in the cartoon, Serbia is being controlled by Austria- Hungary, which makes it appear as though they are the victims and Austria-Hungary is the bully.
    2. The first country is depicted as a child because Serbia was a less powerful and less large of a country who was dependent on others for support.
    3. The title, The chain of Friendship, is possibly an ironic one. There are both friends and enemies within this chain and coming to the defense od one friend could cause more harm to another, which could be an example of situational irony.

Household Water Conservation

1.Explain why water conservation is necessary in Canada.

Water conservation is an important issue in most, if not all, of the countries around the world. In Canada, it is hard to see the consequences of water shortages, however water conservation is still a relevant concern in this country. This is due to the fact that a lot of Canada’s usable water is taken from ground water and more and more pollutants are leaking into this water. As more water is used, more energy needs to be used to purify that water and more pollution is leaked back into the water system. By conserving our water usage, we can try to use less energy and lessen the amount of pollutants leaking in the water system. This will hopefully ensure that our water supply will stay consumable for many more years.

2.Go to: get some water saving ideas and record a video of:

A) Something you already do to conserve water

B) You trying to implement something new in your house.

Breaking poverty cycles

Baby born with HIV cycle:

By having institutions interfere to provide treatment, it will help the children be able to live a more normalized life. This will mainly help address the issue of children missing school due to their illness. Through this interference, the children will be able to receive a higher level education and not only be able to go into a higher paying profession, but they will also learn how to prevent passing HIV on to their offspring, thus breaking this cycle.

Child born into poverty cycle:

By having outside organization provide support and job training for families, it will enable the families to have higher paying jobs. These jobs will help pull the families out of their crippling poverty and they will, therefore, be able to provide sufficient care for their children, breaking the poverty cycle.

Woman born into inequality:

In order to provide the lacking necessary education for these young women, outside organizations must step in to provide this service. As the women become more educated they will both be able to get a higher paying job and will be able to ensure that their children are all treated equally regardless of gender, thus breaking the poverty cycle.

Measuring poverty

1) In your own words, explain the problems with measuring poverty (standard of living, absolute vs relative, HDI)

Measuring poverty is a complicated, troublesome task. One issue that presents itself is differentiating poverty from the standard of living. It is apparent that the people in every country in the world have a different societal norm when it comes to consumption of resources. This means that even if one country has less wealth accessible to them- a lower standard of living- does not mean that the majority of people in that country are living in poverty. Because of this issues, people have developed two methods to quantify poverty. The first is called absolute poverty and the second is called relative poverty.

Absolute poverty defines poverty as the inability to acquire one’s basic needs. This method defines how much money a person should spend on different resources and proceeds to claim that anyone who falls under these values are considered to be living in poverty. It states that anyone who lives on less than 1.25 US dollars per day is considered to be living in poverty.  The issue with this method is that it assumes a universal standard which is unfortunately not the case. Just over one US dollars per day does not carry the same value in the US as it does in a country such as Yemen. Because it does not apply to any developed countries, this definition is flawed.

Relative poverty measures poverty by comparing one person’s total income or spending patterns with those of the general population. This method faces two major criticisms. The first is because of the definition, people who are considered poor in developed countries are still living much better than people in other parts of the world. The second was stated by Chris Sarlo, who said that it does not measure if a family does not have enough to survive, it only measure how one person compares to another.

Not all organizations and countries follow these definitions of poverty, for example the United Nations chose to help countries based on their level of human development. Human development is the “progress, self-esteem, freedom, and sustainability” of country. In order to rank the countries, they measure health, education, and living standards. They measure health by deciphering how many people died in each country between the age of 20 and 83.2. Education is measured by finding the average duration of years that students attend in schools as well as the enrollment at each grade, because generally the more years spent in education the more educated the population will be. The final factor, living standard, is measured by calculating the Gross National Income (GNI). GNI is measured by calculating all the money that is coming into the country then dividing it by the population. This method is criticized because the wealth of a country is generally not evenly distributed throughout the population. This means that if a country has a minority of really rich people while the majority suffers from poverty, GNI will not reflect this.

2) What do you think is the best way to measure poverty in Canada and the world?

The best way to measure poverty in Canada is through absolute poverty, however I think that the poverty line should shift. In order for this system to work in Canada, the government first must gather statistics on how much it would be to afford the basic resources in the most expensive province and use that as the poverty line. The most expensive province should be used because in would ensure that all families living in poverty would be accounted for.

In order to measure poverty in the world, the method that would be best would be similar to that of the United Nations. I think that measuring education, health, and GNI are all really important, however I think that a couple more statistics should be considered. One of these factors is infant mortality rate because generally if a large number of infants are dying it could reflect upon the available healthcare. Another factor that I think could help with would be if they could measure the difference in socials classes within a country. I think that this could offset the issues with simple depending on GNI to draw conclusions for living standards.

China’s One Child Policy

1)Is the One Child Policy key to controlling China’s population? Explain why.

China’s One Child Policy has helped reduce birth rates, however it is not the key in controlling China’s population. A more beneficial and democratic solution would be to increase education. The issue of overpopulation is extremely prevalent and it is very likely for people to willingly stop having as large families if they are aware of the hardship that large families could cause. Through education, people could also become more aware regarding different contraceptives, which would reduce the number of abortions and general population growth.

Step two:

Most of the points supporting the One Child Policy say that it has successfully prevented the births of many children, however the most convincing point that the article brought forth regarding the success of the policy, is that it has changed the tradition that more children are better. The fight against traditional views of having large families is one that is hard to fight, as illustrated by Kenya. Changing the view of the masses is a key part in controlling population and although this policy has successfully done this, I believe there are better ways to go about doing this. It is for this reason that I am still convinced that education is the key in controlling population and not the One Child Policy.

2)Is the Policy fair for citizen’s rights? Explain why.

The One child policy is not fair for the citizen’s rights. Not only is this policy violating the right to give birth, it has caused an increase in forced abortions and infanticide. Although infanticide is not directly part of the policy, it is caused because of it. Infanticide is clearly a violation of the babies’ right to life. The other issue of forced abortion violates the right not be subjected to cruel treatment and the right of security. Overall, this policy violates the basic right of life, freedom, and security of person.

Step two:

From the arguments made in the article, the best one states that the One Child Policy generally improves the living standards of the Chinese. Although it may be true that the quality of education, healthcare, and overall development has improved, this does not change the fact that it is violating people’s ability to have children. The article also states that China outlaws forcing women to have abortions and that people could simply pay a fee in order to have a second child. This argument is flawed because many families are not able to pay the high fees of having another children and although they cannot legally physically force abortions on people, the policy is indirectly forcing people to have abortions and there are many cases of family planning officers forcing people to have abortions. It is for these reasons that I still do not believe the policy is fair for citizen’s rights.

3)Has the Policy caused more good or bad? Explain why. (can be qualitative or quantitative)

Although this policy may have helped the general economy of China, it has caused an unforgivable amount of social issues. One of the least abrasive effects that this policy has caused, is that many children have started to lack social skills due to the lack of social interaction with siblings. This policy has caused many more severe social issues. These include the fact that many citizens are living in fear because family planning officials are corrupt and have taken away children, forced women to have abortions, and have placed fees that are four to ten times an annual salary if a family breaks this Policy. This policy may have caused an improvement in the country’s economy as a whole, its effect of the people’s day to day life outweighs the good it may have achieved.

Step two:

The argument for why this policy has caused good would be that it slows the consumption of natural resources and has increased employment rate. Being employed is not only important for the economy of a country but also for the mental health of its citizens. One of the biggest issues with the policy is that it is causing stress and emotional scarring to the citizens. I agree that employment is an important aspect of a country and the policy can be modified to improve demographics. These factors have convinced me that if you look at the country from a statistical point of view, the conclusion can be made that is has caused more good than bad, however, I still believe that on a social level it has caused more bad than good.

Population distribution

1)Read pages 378-379

  • Define Pessimists/Malthusians, Neo Malthusians, and Optimists/cornucopians


These people are called Malthusians because this economic view was defined by a British economist named Thomas Malthus in the late 1700’s.  Malthus wrote about the risk of population growth. He said that population increases in an exponential rate, while resource growth is linear. This would soon cause for the population to outstrip food supply leading to famine, disease and social disarray. This view is flawed, however, because Malthus did not account for improvements in agriculture, hygiene, migration and medicine.


The thinkers called neo-Malthusians, blended Thomas Malthus’ ideas with the work of William Catton, William Rees and Mathis Wackernagel to come up with a more reasonable version of the Malthusians’ view. They predict that due to increase in global warming, shortages of arable land, lack of fresh water, and the spread of diseases will cause an unstoppable problem of overpopulation in developing countries. They claim that no amount of migrations, technology, and new farming lands will be able to solve this problem for those countries. They also state that unless there is a profound change in one of those developing countries, the population will only be check by famine, disease or war.

Optimists/ cornucopians

Optimists or cornucopians’ theory was developed in the 1960s by American demographer D.J. Bogue. He identified his theory as the demographic regulation, which states that as living standards all around the world improve, population growth will level off. This theory is supported by optimists as they believe that technological advancements, increase in trade, and more efficient ways of sharing the Earth’s resources will help solve over population. The general theory of optimists is supported by the demographic transition model, measure taken by China and India to limit population growth, and Sweden’s population growth naturally leveling off when their living standard improved.

2)Watch Unreported World: Kenya’s Human Time Bomb and Hans Rosling’s TED Talk: Global population growth, box by box.

  • State which category from #1 do the two videos fit into
  • Provide quotes and timestamps from the video that justifies your categorization

Unreported World: Kenya’s Human Time bomb

The video titled “Unreported world: Kenya’s Human Time Bomb fits into the Malthusian category. This video vividly discusses the issue of overpopulation in the developing country of Kenya. The main issue that the Kenyans need more land because they are struggling to have enough land to grow enough food for their ever growing families. The need for land has led to fights breaking out around Kenya. Some Kenyans claim that “the population has increased and this is the mighty force that is driving [them] out [of their homes]” (7:01-7:05). The Kenyans are aware of their overpopulation issue and they are trying to fix it with family planning. Unfortunately, family workers are overstretched because many women are trying to prevent pregnancies and there are not enough resources to set up many more centers. The narrator states that the amount of overpopulation “is cancelling the gains of economic development” (12:10-12:13). Not only does the narrator seem to agree with the Malthusians view that overpopulation is unstoppable, he also seems to agree with the idea that population growth is exponential. He uses the example of a man who has “had twenty-two children and so far has forty grandchildren” to illustrate the fact that population growth is difficult to control. He also uses this family to express the fact that even though the Kenyans are aware of family planning, many continue to have large families because it is the tradition. The fact that the narrator believes in exponential growth and the fact that overpopulation will occur regardless of the economic development, places him as a Malthusian.

TED Talk: Global population growth, box by box

The presenter of this video’s view most closely falls into the category of Neo Malthusian. A Neo Malthusian believes that the only way to solve population is through a profound change or else the population will be checked by famine, disease or war. The presenter states “there is nothing but nuclear war, of a kind we have never see, that can stop [the population growth in developing countries] from happening” (4:49- 5:55). A statement like this could easily classify the presenter as a Malthusian, however, he proceeds to state that “if and only if [developing countries] get out of poverty, they get education, they get improved child survival … then population growth will stop up there in 2050” (5:58-6:13). This is the profound change that Neo Malthusians believe in that could solve the issue of population growth. The importance is then further discussed as the presenter proves that an increase in child survival generally leads to a decrease in family sizes. This solidifies the theory that the change in child survival through an improved education and increase in family planning, will stop the issue of the large increase in population growth in developing countries.

New Zealand’s Demographic Information

Use the demographic data to create a population pyramid for 2016

Find the dependency ratio, is it high or low?

The dependency ratio for new Zealand is approximately 53%, which is a relatively low dependency ratio. This is a good sign for the stability of the New Zealand economy.

Describe the situation in the country based on the info in your population pyramid (births, deaths, health, age, male/female, type of pyramid, stage in DTM etc.)

The population pyramid of New Zealand gives a lot of insight into the state of the country. Based on the pyramid, the overall male population seems approximately equal to the overall female population, however it appears as though there are more younger males and more older females. The pyramid also shows that most death occur after the age of 54 and there are plenty of children under the age of 4- proving a high birth rate, but it appears as though birth rates are a little lower then they have been in the past. The general health of the population could be improved upon, however it is not that inefficient because there appears to be quite a few people that live past the age of 70. The type of pyramid that this most closely resembles would be the stable stage, which corresponds to stage four of the demographic transition model. This means that birth rates as well as death rates are falling and there is a slow or stable population increase.

Explain what the country needs to prepare for in the near future and why you think that. (health, population, business, policies, etc. Connect this to your observations)

There are a few things that New Zealand should take in to consideration in order to ensure the stability of their country. The first is that the population of people between the ages of 40 and fifty is very large. These people are not that are not far away from retirement age which means that the New Zealand healthcare system should upgrade to ensure they can properly care for the large influx of older people. Another thing that should be taken into consideration is the fact that the birth rate is falling. This means that there will not be as many children entering the school system, which lessens the need for elementary education. In terms of businesses, they should start gearing their services to a more elderly to middle-aged demographic. For example a housing company could start downsizing their houses and ensuring there are no stairs or there are elevators available for easy access. Overall, New Zealand does not have to worry too much about or their general economy. Their dependency ratio should remain low because there are a pretty equal amount of people leaving the workforce as there are people entering it.

Demography- Canada and BC



  • How would you describe the change in Canada and B.C.’s population over time?

Both Canada and BC’s population is steadily increasing.


  • Describe the trend in birth rates and death rates for B.C. and Canada.

Both the birth rates and the death rates in Canada and BC are decreasing.


  • Describe the trend in natural increase for B.C. and Canada.

Despite the birth rate growing, the rate of natural increase is steadily decreasing for both BC and Canada. BC’s natural increase is decreasing faster than the rest of Canada.


  • If you were opening a baby clothing store in B.C., what information from your chart/graph would be most useful to you? Explain why.

If I were to open a baby clothing school the statistic I would be most interesting is the birth rate in BC, because the business is dependent on how many families would be investing in baby clothing. If the birth rate is increasing than I could conclude that this store would be profitable, however if it were decreasing than I should consider opening a different shop so that I am benefitting from my store in the years to come. Another statistic that I could be interested in could be the overall population. It would be useful because it could give an idea of how many people would be planning on having children.


  • What other types of businesses could use the information for B.C.? Explain how it can be useful to these businesses.

Another couple businesses that could be interested in these statistics would be the housing industry, daycare industry and the schooling industry.  The housing industry would be interested in the population growth because then they could anticipate the need for more houses. The daycare as well as the schooling industry would be interested in the birth rates and population growth so that they could anticipate the needs of the different ages of children. For example, if the birth rate was decreasing than the schooling industry could consider shutting down certain elementary schools.


  • If you were a politician in Canada or B.C., what policies or changes would you make based on this information? Explain how the information would lead you to make certain changes or policies.

As a politician the most worrisome statistic would be the death rate because it is increasing. This would cause me to look into the accessibility of different healthcare systems. I would also look into the cause of death and our population pyramid. The population pyramid would give me an idea of how many people in different age categories so that I could infer whether or not most of the deaths were due to natural causes. After my research is complete, I would most likely improve the medical system and ensure that hospitals had plenty of employment.




Socials 11- Political Party group assignment

Group members: Lindsey, Henry, Iman

The Green Party-1px7jk0


“160708-Policy-Sm.pdf.” Web. 22 Feb. 2017.

“B.C.’s Greens Win First Provincial Seat.” CBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.

“Christy Clark’s ‘Forget Everything’ Budget Can’t Erase Years of Neglect, Says Horgan.” BC NDP Caucus. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

“Our History.” BC Green Party. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.

“Rafe: Weaver, BC Greens Should Quit Backing Private River Power Sham.” The Common Sense Canadian. N.p., 29 Mar. 2016. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

“RCY Report Shows Christy Clark Is Still Failing Children.” BC NDP Caucus. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.

“The Global Greens.” BC Green Party. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.