1921 Election as a Factory Owner in Ontario

As a factory owner in Ontario, I would have voted for the Conservative Party who was led by Arthur Meighen in 1921. During this time, I would have been worried about the wellbeing of my company because the Canadian economy was crashing and many people (especially in the western provinces) wanted to get rid of tariffs, which are important for my profits.

At this time, the Liberal party, led by William Lyon Mackenzie King, focused on advertising the downfalls of governments and did not take a definitive stance on a specific policy on the tariffs. In 1919, however, this party supported a reduction of the tariff and in 1921, they tried to accommodate as many view points as possible, which means that as a factory owner, I would question their support of factories and businesses in the East.

Another potential option to vote for would have been the Progressive party. This party was centered on supporting the western farmers which means that they supported free trade and their leader, Thomas Alexander Crerar, strove for their advancement of western farmers through the abolition of the tariff. Everything that this party stood for could potentially be detrimental to a factory owner in the east. The reduction of tariffs and the fact that they were focused on the west would mean that many of my issues would be ignored.

The final party is the Conservative party led by Arthur Meighen. This party focused their attention on Ontario, British Columbia and the Maritimes. They promised that they would promote growth and development of the Canadian economy, supported retaining the tariff, and promoted the National Policy, which focused on trade between the Eastern and the Western provinces and had benefited the East in the past. Because of their platform and focus, I, as factory owner in Ontario, would realize that this party is pretty much catering to my needs and would therefore vote for them.

Response to the letter

Mark: 6/6


Thank you so much for giving me such a thorough evaluation of what is occurring back at home. I cannot tell you how much joy it gives me as I sit within these suffocating walls of the trenches. You are my ray of sunshine.

We have all spent so much time in these trenches, our feet are starting to produce the most foul of smells. This unfortunately, only attracts more flies and I often feel like I am wading through a swamp of parasites. Most of us are infested with lice, and I sincerely hope that I will not be infected. There is no way to treat any of these conditions and so we all spend our nights tossing and turning trying to forget about the discomfort as gun fire echoes in our heads. The only comforting factor is that we are safe from the enemies’ fire.

Yesterday, I met the most fascinating boy named Kenny. He told me that he has two brothers, one in the navy and one is a pilot. His brother in the navy told him that the Germans have developed a new weapon that dives under the sea only to resurface to shoot down ships. He tells me that this horrible weapon is taking down many supply ships and I worry that the war may not turn out in our favor. To make matters worse, Kenny said that the Germans have an undefeatable pilot referred to as the Red Baron. He has told me that this pilot has so far shot down more men than any of our pilots. I sincerely hope that Billy Bishop will take him down. Do you know if they have fought each other yet?

I know wish that I joined the air force. There is so much more chance for recognition and I would have not had to fight in the traumatizing battle of Ypres. We had never fought so hard, as we did the day we were defending the Salient, until the Germans released tons of poisonous gas that massacred a large group of soldiers. Although this battle proved to the world that we Canadians are a strong fighting force, I still have nightmares about the suffocating gas.

It is with regret that I must end this letter. The sun is starting to rise and we will soon be bombarded with gun fire. Fear not, when I get home, you will no longer have to do my work and we will be together again just like we were before. Sleep well, dearest.

Yours entirely,

Your loving husband

The War in Europe- Attain your knowledge

Battle Date Components Outcome/Significance


First week of April- April 24, 1915 ·         Canadian troops were moved to a bulge in the Allied line- the Salient- in the front of the City of Ypres

·         Germans held higher grounds in the north; two British divisions were on the Canadian’s right and a French division of their left

·         On April 22, for the first time, the Germans released 160 tons of chlorine gas, following an intensive artillery bombardment, in attempt to remove the Salient

-This successfully left a gaping 6.5 kilometer hole in the Allied line

-Germans only advanced 3.25 km because they had a limited offense and the German troops were suspicious of the gas

·      The Canadian troops fought to close the gap and    launched two more disastrous attacks near St. Julien.

-Little ground was won and there were many causalities

·      On April 24, the Germans targeted the Canadian line to try to obliterate the Salient once and for all.

-Canadians held in until reinforcements arrived

·         In 48 hours, 6035 Canadians, one man in every three, became casualties of whom more than 2,000 died

·         No major ground was one for either side

·         This was Canada’s first major appearance on a European battlefield, and they had established themselves as a formidable fighting force.



July 1- November 18, 1916 ·         Canadian commander, Lieutenant- General Sir Julian Byng,

·         The Allies planned to launch on the Western, Eastern, and Italian Fronts; and the region of Somme was chosen as a joint for French and British assaults.

-This was plan was ruined when the Germans seized the initiative and chose to attack Verdun (which France valued heavily), which caused mainly the French but also the German army to suffer a depletion in their number of soldiers.

·         Sir Douglas Haig, the new British commander, hasten the Somme offensive to attempt to relieve Verdun.

-By the end of June, Haig had planned his assault that would destroy the enemy line and allow for the British cavalry to attack the rear areas of Germany. Unfortunately for him, Germany had strengthened their defense

·         On July 1, thousands of British and French troops across No Man’s land on a front of over 40 km towards German positions.

·         The “Byng boys” moved from the fields of Flanders to the Somme, on order to defend the front line in the village of Courcelette.

·         On September 15, the Canadian Corps assaulted a 2,000 meter sector west of Courcelette with the help of a creeping barrage and the tank (a new weapon) and successfully captured Regina Trench (on November 11), advanced to Desire Trench and then rejoined the Corps opposite Vimy Ridge.


·         57,000 British soldier casualties in one day

·         1st Battalion of the Newfoundland Regiment lost two thirds of its entire strength

·         The French  and the British divisions in the south had gained nearly all their objectives, but the rest of the British sector had gained almost nothing.

·         Allies suffered some 650,000 casualties

·         Both sides had about 200,000 killed

·         Germans refer to it as das Blutbad, meaning blodd bath

·         Canada had 24.029 casualties

·         Canadians confirmed their reputation as hard hitting shocked troops

·         Lloyd George said,” the Canadians… were brought along to head the assault in one great battle after another [leaving] the Germans … prepared for the worst.”

Vimy Ridge


March 20- April 9, 1917 ·         In March 1917, the Germans withdrew from Reims and Soissons, to strengthen new defenses in the Hindenburg Line.

·         Previous attempts to take Vimy had failed, but did succeed in pushing the Germans in to a position where they could not maneuver with the Douai Plain behind them.

·         Canadian commanders produced elaborate plans. Engineers dug tunnels to the ridge, roads and light railways were improved, and a vast mass of supplies of every type were readied. The troops also practiced their roles until every man was familiar with the ground and tactics expected of him.

·         Preliminary bombardment began on March 20, followed by crushing blows on April 2, and on April 8, all was ready for the mobilization of infantry.

·         On April 9, the infantry attacked and took control of the crest of the Ridge that day, and spent the following three days successfully taking control of hill 145 and the Pimple.

·         10,602 Canadian casualties

·         First time that four division of the Canadian Corps had attacked and triumphed together

·         Four Canadians won the Victoria Cross

·         Canadian Corps received its first Canadian commander when Sir Arthur Currie was promoted to lieutenant- general.



July- November 1917 ·         Canadian forced were ordered to relieve the decimated Anzac forces in the Ypres sector and capture Passchendaele.

·         Lieutenant-General Currie protested that the battlefield’s conditions were too poor but was overruled.

·         On October 26, 20,000 men under heavy fire, inched their way across the battlefield.

·         On October 30, the two British divisions and the Canadians began their attack on Passchendaele itself

-they gained the ruined outskirts of the village

·         By November 11, Passchendaele became part of the Canadian Calvary.

·         Total attacker killed: 4,028

·         Canadian Casualties: 15654

·         Not strategically significant, but it became well known because of the Canadian and British victory in the rough conditions


The Chain of Friendship

  1. Identify the countries:
    1. “If you touch me I’ll”- represents Serbia
    2. “If you make a move I’ll” –represents Austria-Hungary
    3. “If you hit that little feller I’ll” – represents Russia
    4. “If you strike my friend I’ll”- represents Germany
    5. “If you hit him” – represents France
    6. “Ho there. If you chaps”- represents Britain
  2. In the second slide, the men who are circled in blue are on one side and the men circled in yellow are on the opposing side. Team blue consists of the countries: Serbia, Russia, France and Britain. All four of these countries are in conflict with the yellow side which are the countries Austria-Hungary and Germany. This illustrates the two distinct sides that fought against each other during WWI.
  3. The circled character on slide three, represents the country of Serbia. It is represented as a child because, in comparison to the large Austria-Hungarian Empire, it lacks size and power. Also, it was a country that was dependent on other countries for defensive help.
  4. The three men that are circled represent Germany, France and Britain. All three of these countries are the furthest back on The Chain of Friendship because they joined the war later than the other countries in this cartoon. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, however, Germany only declared war on Serbia-Russia on August 1, 1914. France becomes part of the war on August 3, 1914, when Germany declares war on it. And Britain declares war on Germany after Germany violated Belgium’s neutrality on August 4, 1914.
  5. The two men that are circled on slide five represent Germany and Britain. These countries fought on opposite side of the war. The reason that they are circled is that Germany was the cause of Britain joining the war. On August 4, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, who had declared themselves neutral. This caused Britain to declare war on Germany, and thus join the war.
  6. WWI began when Austria, with German support, told Serbia to punish those involved in the assassination and suppress nationalism on July 23, and Serbia did not allow an Austrian inquiry on the matter. This caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, which then caused Russia to order a general mobilization on July 31, in support of Serbia. Then, Germany holds true to its word by declaring war on Serbia-Russia on August 1, 1914. This is followed by France ordering a general mobilization which causes Germany to declare war on France on August 3, 1914. The following day, Germany invades Belgium, who had declared themselves neutral, which then causes Britain to declare war on Germany for violating Belgium’s neutrality.
  7. Analysis
    1. This cartoon was written by the perspective of the Serbian perspective. The reason for this belief is that in the cartoon, Serbia is being controlled by Austria- Hungary, which makes it appear as though they are the victims and Austria-Hungary is the bully.
    2. The first country is depicted as a child because Serbia was a less powerful and less large of a country who was dependent on others for support.
    3. The title, The chain of Friendship, is possibly an ironic one. There are both friends and enemies within this chain and coming to the defense od one friend could cause more harm to another, which could be an example of situational irony.

Household Water Conservation

1.Explain why water conservation is necessary in Canada.

Water conservation is an important issue in most, if not all, of the countries around the world. In Canada, it is hard to see the consequences of water shortages, however water conservation is still a relevant concern in this country. This is due to the fact that a lot of Canada’s usable water is taken from ground water and more and more pollutants are leaking into this water. As more water is used, more energy needs to be used to purify that water and more pollution is leaked back into the water system. By conserving our water usage, we can try to use less energy and lessen the amount of pollutants leaking in the water system. This will hopefully ensure that our water supply will stay consumable for many more years.

2.Go to:http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/water/conservation-reservoir-levels/water-conservation-home/Pages/default.aspxto get some water saving ideas and record a video of:

A) Something you already do to conserve water


B) You trying to implement something new in your house.


“The Lord of the Flies” – Human Nature

The following quotes show instances where the boys lose their sense of morality.
“’Here–let me go!’” His voice rose to a shriek of terror as Jack snatched the glasses off his face. ‘Mind out! Give ’em back! I can hardly see! You’ll break the conch!’” (Golding 56).

“Roger stooped, picked up a stone, aimed, and threw it at Henry— threw it to miss. The stone, that token of preposterous time, bounced five yards to Henry’s right and fell in the water. Roger gathered a handful of stones and began to throw them” (Golding 87).

“Piggy spoke, also dribbling. ‘Aren’t I having none?’ Jack had meant to leave him in doubt, as an assertion of power; but Piggy by advertising his omission made more cruelty necessary. ‘You didn’t hunt’” (Golding 103-104).

“Then there was a creature bounding along the pig track toward him, with tusks gleaming and an intimidating grunt. Ralph found he was able to measure the distance coldly and take aim. With the boar only five yards away, he flung the foolish wooden stick…” (Golding 161).

“The chant rose ritually, as at the last moment of a dance or a hunt. “Kill the pig! Cut his throat! Kill the pig! Bash him in!” Ralph too was fighting to get near, to get a handful of that brown, vulnerable flesh. The desire to squeeze and hurt was over-mastering” (Golding 164).

Breaking poverty cycles

Baby born with HIV cycle:

By having institutions interfere to provide treatment, it will help the children be able to live a more normalized life. This will mainly help address the issue of children missing school due to their illness. Through this interference, the children will be able to receive a higher level education and not only be able to go into a higher paying profession, but they will also learn how to prevent passing HIV on to their offspring, thus breaking this cycle.

Child born into poverty cycle:

By having outside organization provide support and job training for families, it will enable the families to have higher paying jobs. These jobs will help pull the families out of their crippling poverty and they will, therefore, be able to provide sufficient care for their children, breaking the poverty cycle.

Woman born into inequality:

In order to provide the lacking necessary education for these young women, outside organizations must step in to provide this service. As the women become more educated they will both be able to get a higher paying job and will be able to ensure that their children are all treated equally regardless of gender, thus breaking the poverty cycle.

Measuring poverty

1) In your own words, explain the problems with measuring poverty (standard of living, absolute vs relative, HDI)

Measuring poverty is a complicated, troublesome task. One issue that presents itself is differentiating poverty from the standard of living. It is apparent that the people in every country in the world have a different societal norm when it comes to consumption of resources. This means that even if one country has less wealth accessible to them- a lower standard of living- does not mean that the majority of people in that country are living in poverty. Because of this issues, people have developed two methods to quantify poverty. The first is called absolute poverty and the second is called relative poverty.

Absolute poverty defines poverty as the inability to acquire one’s basic needs. This method defines how much money a person should spend on different resources and proceeds to claim that anyone who falls under these values are considered to be living in poverty. It states that anyone who lives on less than 1.25 US dollars per day is considered to be living in poverty.  The issue with this method is that it assumes a universal standard which is unfortunately not the case. Just over one US dollars per day does not carry the same value in the US as it does in a country such as Yemen. Because it does not apply to any developed countries, this definition is flawed.

Relative poverty measures poverty by comparing one person’s total income or spending patterns with those of the general population. This method faces two major criticisms. The first is because of the definition, people who are considered poor in developed countries are still living much better than people in other parts of the world. The second was stated by Chris Sarlo, who said that it does not measure if a family does not have enough to survive, it only measure how one person compares to another.

Not all organizations and countries follow these definitions of poverty, for example the United Nations chose to help countries based on their level of human development. Human development is the “progress, self-esteem, freedom, and sustainability” of country. In order to rank the countries, they measure health, education, and living standards. They measure health by deciphering how many people died in each country between the age of 20 and 83.2. Education is measured by finding the average duration of years that students attend in schools as well as the enrollment at each grade, because generally the more years spent in education the more educated the population will be. The final factor, living standard, is measured by calculating the Gross National Income (GNI). GNI is measured by calculating all the money that is coming into the country then dividing it by the population. This method is criticized because the wealth of a country is generally not evenly distributed throughout the population. This means that if a country has a minority of really rich people while the majority suffers from poverty, GNI will not reflect this.

2) What do you think is the best way to measure poverty in Canada and the world?

The best way to measure poverty in Canada is through absolute poverty, however I think that the poverty line should shift. In order for this system to work in Canada, the government first must gather statistics on how much it would be to afford the basic resources in the most expensive province and use that as the poverty line. The most expensive province should be used because in would ensure that all families living in poverty would be accounted for.

In order to measure poverty in the world, the method that would be best would be similar to that of the United Nations. I think that measuring education, health, and GNI are all really important, however I think that a couple more statistics should be considered. One of these factors is infant mortality rate because generally if a large number of infants are dying it could reflect upon the available healthcare. Another factor that I think could help with would be if they could measure the difference in socials classes within a country. I think that this could offset the issues with simple depending on GNI to draw conclusions for living standards.

“Lord of the Flies” – Island Description

“Lord of the Flies” – Island Description


“The ground beneath them was a bank covered with coarse grass, torn everywhere by the upheavals of fallen trees, scattered with decaying coconuts and palm saplings” (Golding 10).

Island shape:

“It was roughly boat-shaped: humped near this end with behind them the jumbled descent to the shore. On either side rocks, cliffs, treetops and a steep slope: forward there, the length of the boat, a tamer descent, tree-clad, with hints of pink: and then the jungly flat of the island, dense green, but drawn at the end to a pink tail” (Golding 38).


“They were on the lip of a circular hollow in the side of the mountain. This was filled with a blue flower, a rock plant of some sort, and the overflow hung down the vent and spilled lavishly among the canopy of the forest” (Golding 37).


“Beyond falls and cliffs there was a gash visible in the trees; there were the splintered trunks and then the drag, leaving only a fringe of palm between the scar and the sea” (Golding 39).

The lagoon:

“Within the irregular arc of coral the lagoon was still as a mountain lake—blue of all shades and shadowy green and purple” (Golding, 10).

The beach:

” The beach between the palm terrace and the water was a thin stick” (Golding 10).

“Here the beach was interrupted abruptly by the square motif of the landscape; a great platform of pink granite thrust up uncompromisingly through forest and terrace and sand and lagoon to make a raised jetty four feet high. The top of this was covered with a thin layer of soil and coarse grass and shaded with young palm trees” (Golding 13).

“The beach between the palm terrace and the water was a thin stick, endless apparently, for to Ralph’s left the perspectives of palm and beach and water drew to a point at infinity” (Golding 10).

Fruit trees:

“He walked with an accustomed tread through the acres of fruit trees, … Flower and fruit grew together on the same tree and everywhere was the scent of ripeness and the booming of a million bees at pasture” (Golding 77).

The coral reef:

“The reef enclosed more than one side of the island, lying perhaps a mile out and parallel to what they now thought of as their beach. The coral was scribbled in the sea as though a giant had bent down to reproduce the shape of the island in a flowing chalk line but tired before he had finished. Inside was peacock water, rocks and weeds showing as in an aquarium; outside was the dark blue of the sea” (Golding 38).