Canada entering WWII

Apply Your Knowledge:

  1. Explain how Canada’s decision to go to war in WWII was different than WWI

In WWI, Canada joined the war for the sole purpose that Britain had decided to join the war. At that point in time, Canada was not autonomous from Britain and had no real option in the matter. Throughout the course of WWI and the interwar period, Canada gained more autonomy from Britain and were now an independent nation, who could freely choose whether or not they wanted to join the war. Even though this was the case, Canada was still very connected to Britain and they felt the need to fight alongside them.

 

  1. What were the BCATP and CD Howe’s Total War economy?

The BCATP or British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was plan that was created by Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Australia. Its mandate was to train Allied aircrews for the Second World War.

CD Howe’s Total War economy was implemented when Howe was given complete authority to do whatever it took to prepare the economy for wartime demands. He decided to tell which industries were to produce which goods. This led to the government having complete control over pretty much everything.

 

  1. Come up with a statement that the best describes Canada’s attitude towards WWII and support it by referring to the evidence from the class and the textbook (#1-2 above).

Canada was apprehensive to join World War Two. Some people were concerned that Canada not having enough of a military (as illustrated by the political cartoon National Nightmare the Hamilton Spectator), however most of Canada was torn between supporting Britain and being their own country (as illustrated by the cartoon titled Trying to Please Both).

Letter to Bennet

Dear Mr. Bennet,

I know that you are a very busy man, but I hope that you will find it in your heart to read this letter and try to help us.

The struggle to find sufficient jobs and survive in the present economy is not limited to just one area. No, my dear Bennet, I have seen it. The suffering extends from Quebec all the way to the western coast of British Columbia. That is where I started my travels, BC. I had to leave that depressed province after my experience in relief camps. People in those camps treat you like slaves. They force people to work about six days per week and they only pay them twenty cents. That is not enough money for anyone to live on, so I decided to quit and try to find work elsewhere. I know that you probably think that BC must be doing better because of the recent election and Dufferin Patullo’s new ideas in regards to shortening the work day and increasing minimum wage, but things are still in bad conditions. Because of this I decided to join the Trek to Ottawa. You see, I wanted to speak to you. To explain why it is so important for you to help us. Along the way I witness so much suffering.

In Alberta people are pushing for a provincial government that will help them receive more money to pay for their basic needs and in Saskatchewan people are in desperate need of a new provincial government as well. The prairies seem to be hit a lot harder than other places I have seen. They are suffering from severe droughts which is causing their crops to suffer and they are in desperate need of irrigation. As we moved through the prairies more and more people joined us. Many of them from people who had no way of income. They spend most of their times in lines waiting for pogey hoping that they could receive relief, or waiting in endless lines outside soup kitchens. The closer we got to Ontario the more worried you became so you sent your RCMP to stop us and only allowed our leaders to go to Ontario. Unfortunately, I am not a leader so I was forced to stay behind. I was determined to talk to you in person, so I snuck aboard a train and rode my way to Ontario. I was surprised when I got there. People are suffering just as much here as they are in BC. The working class here need help as do the people in Quebec. I know that the people in Quebec blame the English speaking part of Canada for their problems and they are becoming more separated from the rest of Canada in terms of their belief in French nationalism, but they are still part of Canada and you are still responsible for them.

Let me ask you something. Have you ever seen a dead body? I have. I got to witness someone launching themselves out a window one Friday evening. This is how desperate people are so I am begging you to open your eyes and help us. Help us get jobs. Help us be able to support our families. Help us live our lives like we did no more than a decade ago.

Please Mr. Bennet. Please, provide this country with the support we all desperately need.

Regards,

Anonymous

Cartoon chart

Cartoon Name Describe the Cartoon Meaning from symbols Message of the author
British Columbia hates the Chinks, Japs, and Mormons There is one large man labelled B.C. who is kicking three men. One is Chinese, one Japanese and the other is a Mormon. In the background there are trees. -The large man represents B.C, and their lack of acceptance for minorities

-The three men represent the minorities who are being mistreated by the larger population.

-Represented as small because they author believes that they are pests.

B.C does not and should not accept minorities.
Equality of status within equality of status There is a group of about six aboriginals. The leader is holding a paper that says “Six nations ultimatum of independence”.

At the top left hand corner, someone outside the picture is saying, “Big, Indian six nations, want equality of status all same like little white father Mackenzie King Waugh”

-The six aboriginals represent six different aboriginal nations who strive for independence from the Canadian government.

-Canadian government granted Six nations independence but not the native Americans.

-The speech is mocking the way they speak.

 

-Aboriginals are asking for equality within an already equal country which is nonsensical.
Liberal candidates are pledged to a white British Columbia -In the background there are two land masses labelled Japan and China.

-Vancouver island is labelled and the main land is labelled British Columbia “Promised Land”,

-On the main land there is an archway that says “Meighen Welcomes You” and there is a white person shaking hand with someone who appears Chinese or Japanese.

-The man under the archway represents conservative leader Arthur Meighen

-The man shaking Meighen’ hands represents visible minorities who would be accepted thanks to the Conservative party

.The liberals are not willing to accept visible minorities but Arthur Meighen would welcome minorities so you should not vote for the Conservative party.
One sign of returning world sanity -There is a black person who is covered with different ornaments. In his right hand he holds a snare drum. Trailing behind him is a triangle, bell, cymbals and a sign that says jazz.

In his left hand he is holding a trumpet.

-He is running in the direction of a sign that says “To barbarism and savagery.”

 

-The person in the picture represents all black people

-The sign “to barbarism and savagery” is symbolizing that black people are barbaric and savage.

People of color are savage and barbaric and by listening to their jazz music we will become more like them so they should be driven out of our country.
Retour em Vitesse (Return with speed) There are two areas of land: one is labelled “Etats-Unis” and the other is labelled Saskatchewan.

On Saskatchewan there is a man being kicked by a boot (Gouc. Federal) who is labelled “Organisateur du K.K.K.” who is holding an open brief case.

In Etats-Unis there are members of the KKK standing amongst the trees

-The man is the organizer of the KKK and he is being kicked out of Canada to the US where his group is accepted.

The boot is the government officials

-Unlike Americans, Canadians are accepting to minorities and do not believe in white supremacy.
The Jew unceasingly sucks money from the province. There is a large land mass labelled Quebec that is surrounded by smaller areas labelled by other provinces.

There is a man on Quebec who has a snake-like beard that is attached to different building that are labelled with resources and services.

-The buildings represents services and resources that are being sucked up.

-The man represents a Jew who is sitting there and sucking up these resources and services

Jewish people are sucking up all of Quebec’s resources without contributing anything in return.

Character Monologues- “Death of a Salesman”

Linda

I am a caring and patient wife and mother. My days is structured around helping out my husband, Willy and ensuring that he and my sons do not argue or insult each other too much. My husband can be somewhat absent minded and self-deprecating and it is for that treason that it is important for me to support and complement him. I try my best to ensure that all of my family is well-looked after, which is generally not hard to manage because our family is pretty closely-knit. Our son Biff, has once again come to live at home and although this is a source of frustration for my husband, I think it is important for our son to have a safe place to land. Recently, Willy has been acting a little strangely but I think that it is simply because he feels responsible for our lack of wealth, which is not necessary because we have managed on less in the past. Because of this I try my best to reassure him and ensure that he is happy.

Roaring 20s comparison chart

Theme How did it contribute to the “Roar” of the 1920s? Modern day equivalent What is similar today? What is different today?
Branch Plants -Americans set up industries in Canada so that the goods they were selling were not subject to the Canadian tariffs

-Even though this caused Canadians to buy these products and increase the profits for the US, these industries hired Canadian employees thus increasing job opportunities in Canada.

Giving to charities Many companies will chose to give a large sum of money to a charity which allows for them to pay less tax.

This tactic, like branch plants, allows for companies to escape as high of taxes.

Giving to charities does not offer job opportunities and does not spread the wealth to another country.
Prohibition/ Bootlegging -The prohibition began in Canada because of the soldiers had priority over the alcohol, however after the war women pushed for it to become prohibited under the belief that by doing so it would strengthen families.

-Quebec did not agree to prohibition which led to their economy strengthening

-By 1921, the prohibition was lifted in Canada which led to Americans coming to Canada to buy liquor and then they would sell it illegally in the US.

-Marijuana It is illegal and creates criminal but at the same time it provides a lot of income for Canada. Marijuana is legal for medicinal purposes but alcohol was never legal for medicinal consumption.

Marijuana is more restricted in Canada then the US.

Telephones Generalized to communication

-communications increased in the 1920s

-Radio entertainment increased

-Telephones become more common

-This increased consumption of goods and general communication between people

-Social media Both social media and communications in the 1920, have caused an increase in consumption and communication between people.

Social media caused an increase in consumption through celebrities and companies using it as a platform for advertisements.

Social media has become a constant barrage of information and communication that never sleeps.
Electric Trolleys -Lower Mainland’s interurban rail line spread from Steveston all way to Chilliwack

-Allowed for affordable travel for people in Urban areas

Sky train -Both are affordable and electric modes of transportation that spread over large areas, allowing most people to have an efficient way to travel -Sky train is much quicker and more efficient than the trolley cars were.

-Sky trains also do not run on the road, instead they are above the roads which reduces traffic

Automobiles -Cars became much more affordable and available to the masses

-Allowed for people to move around and buy more things as well as live in one area and work in another

Cars Both then and now, cars help people commute to and from different areas and well as allow for people to consume goods from many different companies and places. -Cars at this moment are much more efficient and expensive than they were in the 1920’s.

-Cars are more widespread now

Radio -Radio entertainment became prevalent in the 1920s

-Families would gather to listen to the radio

-Allowed for communications between different communities and much more advertising

Televisions TVs now serve the same purpose that radios once did: entertain the public.

-Many companies use different TV channels as a way to advertise just like they used to use radios for that purpose.

-TVs offer a larger variety of channels

-TVs are not solely audio-based

-TVs can be used to play videos that come from the internet

Sports -Started the celebrity idolization

-Baseball/football/hockey cards began

-NHL was born

-Canadian athletes joined the Olympics

Sports -Different athletes are idolized

-Sport cards still exist

-Canadians still participate in the Olympics and win at hockey

-Athlete idolization has started to become overshadowed by actors

-Sport cards have been taken over by online fantasy games (Fantasy Hockey/Football leagues)

 

1921 Election as a Factory Owner in Ontario

As a factory owner in Ontario, I would have voted for the Conservative Party who was led by Arthur Meighen in 1921. During this time, I would have been worried about the wellbeing of my company because the Canadian economy was crashing and many people (especially in the western provinces) wanted to get rid of tariffs, which are important for my profits.

At this time, the Liberal party, led by William Lyon Mackenzie King, focused on advertising the downfalls of governments and did not take a definitive stance on a specific policy on the tariffs. In 1919, however, this party supported a reduction of the tariff and in 1921, they tried to accommodate as many view points as possible, which means that as a factory owner, I would question their support of factories and businesses in the East.

Another potential option to vote for would have been the Progressive party. This party was centered on supporting the western farmers which means that they supported free trade and their leader, Thomas Alexander Crerar, strove for their advancement of western farmers through the abolition of the tariff. Everything that this party stood for could potentially be detrimental to a factory owner in the east. The reduction of tariffs and the fact that they were focused on the west would mean that many of my issues would be ignored.

The final party is the Conservative party led by Arthur Meighen. This party focused their attention on Ontario, British Columbia and the Maritimes. They promised that they would promote growth and development of the Canadian economy, supported retaining the tariff, and promoted the National Policy, which focused on trade between the Eastern and the Western provinces and had benefited the East in the past. Because of their platform and focus, I, as factory owner in Ontario, would realize that this party is pretty much catering to my needs and would therefore vote for them.

Response to the letter

Mark: 6/6

Response:

Dearest,
Thank you so much for giving me such a thorough evaluation of what is occurring back at home. I cannot tell you how much joy it gives me as I sit within these suffocating walls of the trenches. You are my ray of sunshine.

We have all spent so much time in these trenches, our feet are starting to produce the most foul of smells. This unfortunately, only attracts more flies and I often feel like I am wading through a swamp of parasites. Most of us are infested with lice, and I sincerely hope that I will not be infected. There is no way to treat any of these conditions and so we all spend our nights tossing and turning trying to forget about the discomfort as gun fire echoes in our heads. The only comforting factor is that we are safe from the enemies’ fire.

Yesterday, I met the most fascinating boy named Kenny. He told me that he has two brothers, one in the navy and one is a pilot. His brother in the navy told him that the Germans have developed a new weapon that dives under the sea only to resurface to shoot down ships. He tells me that this horrible weapon is taking down many supply ships and I worry that the war may not turn out in our favor. To make matters worse, Kenny said that the Germans have an undefeatable pilot referred to as the Red Baron. He has told me that this pilot has so far shot down more men than any of our pilots. I sincerely hope that Billy Bishop will take him down. Do you know if they have fought each other yet?

I know wish that I joined the air force. There is so much more chance for recognition and I would have not had to fight in the traumatizing battle of Ypres. We had never fought so hard, as we did the day we were defending the Salient, until the Germans released tons of poisonous gas that massacred a large group of soldiers. Although this battle proved to the world that we Canadians are a strong fighting force, I still have nightmares about the suffocating gas.

It is with regret that I must end this letter. The sun is starting to rise and we will soon be bombarded with gun fire. Fear not, when I get home, you will no longer have to do my work and we will be together again just like we were before. Sleep well, dearest.

Yours entirely,

Your loving husband

The War in Europe- Attain your knowledge

Battle Date Components Outcome/Significance
Ypres

 

First week of April- April 24, 1915 ·         Canadian troops were moved to a bulge in the Allied line- the Salient- in the front of the City of Ypres

·         Germans held higher grounds in the north; two British divisions were on the Canadian’s right and a French division of their left

·         On April 22, for the first time, the Germans released 160 tons of chlorine gas, following an intensive artillery bombardment, in attempt to remove the Salient

-This successfully left a gaping 6.5 kilometer hole in the Allied line

-Germans only advanced 3.25 km because they had a limited offense and the German troops were suspicious of the gas

·      The Canadian troops fought to close the gap and    launched two more disastrous attacks near St. Julien.

-Little ground was won and there were many causalities

·      On April 24, the Germans targeted the Canadian line to try to obliterate the Salient once and for all.

-Canadians held in until reinforcements arrived

·         In 48 hours, 6035 Canadians, one man in every three, became casualties of whom more than 2,000 died

·         No major ground was one for either side

·         This was Canada’s first major appearance on a European battlefield, and they had established themselves as a formidable fighting force.

Somme

 

July 1- November 18, 1916 ·         Canadian commander, Lieutenant- General Sir Julian Byng,

·         The Allies planned to launch on the Western, Eastern, and Italian Fronts; and the region of Somme was chosen as a joint for French and British assaults.

-This was plan was ruined when the Germans seized the initiative and chose to attack Verdun (which France valued heavily), which caused mainly the French but also the German army to suffer a depletion in their number of soldiers.

·         Sir Douglas Haig, the new British commander, hasten the Somme offensive to attempt to relieve Verdun.

-By the end of June, Haig had planned his assault that would destroy the enemy line and allow for the British cavalry to attack the rear areas of Germany. Unfortunately for him, Germany had strengthened their defense

·         On July 1, thousands of British and French troops across No Man’s land on a front of over 40 km towards German positions.

·         The “Byng boys” moved from the fields of Flanders to the Somme, on order to defend the front line in the village of Courcelette.

·         On September 15, the Canadian Corps assaulted a 2,000 meter sector west of Courcelette with the help of a creeping barrage and the tank (a new weapon) and successfully captured Regina Trench (on November 11), advanced to Desire Trench and then rejoined the Corps opposite Vimy Ridge.

 

·         57,000 British soldier casualties in one day

·         1st Battalion of the Newfoundland Regiment lost two thirds of its entire strength

·         The French  and the British divisions in the south had gained nearly all their objectives, but the rest of the British sector had gained almost nothing.

·         Allies suffered some 650,000 casualties

·         Both sides had about 200,000 killed

·         Germans refer to it as das Blutbad, meaning blodd bath

·         Canada had 24.029 casualties

·         Canadians confirmed their reputation as hard hitting shocked troops

·         Lloyd George said,” the Canadians… were brought along to head the assault in one great battle after another [leaving] the Germans … prepared for the worst.”

Vimy Ridge

 

March 20- April 9, 1917 ·         In March 1917, the Germans withdrew from Reims and Soissons, to strengthen new defenses in the Hindenburg Line.

·         Previous attempts to take Vimy had failed, but did succeed in pushing the Germans in to a position where they could not maneuver with the Douai Plain behind them.

·         Canadian commanders produced elaborate plans. Engineers dug tunnels to the ridge, roads and light railways were improved, and a vast mass of supplies of every type were readied. The troops also practiced their roles until every man was familiar with the ground and tactics expected of him.

·         Preliminary bombardment began on March 20, followed by crushing blows on April 2, and on April 8, all was ready for the mobilization of infantry.

·         On April 9, the infantry attacked and took control of the crest of the Ridge that day, and spent the following three days successfully taking control of hill 145 and the Pimple.

·         10,602 Canadian casualties

·         First time that four division of the Canadian Corps had attacked and triumphed together

·         Four Canadians won the Victoria Cross

·         Canadian Corps received its first Canadian commander when Sir Arthur Currie was promoted to lieutenant- general.

Passchendaele

 

July- November 1917 ·         Canadian forced were ordered to relieve the decimated Anzac forces in the Ypres sector and capture Passchendaele.

·         Lieutenant-General Currie protested that the battlefield’s conditions were too poor but was overruled.

·         On October 26, 20,000 men under heavy fire, inched their way across the battlefield.

·         On October 30, the two British divisions and the Canadians began their attack on Passchendaele itself

-they gained the ruined outskirts of the village

·         By November 11, Passchendaele became part of the Canadian Calvary.

·         Total attacker killed: 4,028

·         Canadian Casualties: 15654

·         Not strategically significant, but it became well known because of the Canadian and British victory in the rough conditions

 

The Chain of Friendship

  1. Identify the countries:
    1. “If you touch me I’ll”- represents Serbia
    2. “If you make a move I’ll” –represents Austria-Hungary
    3. “If you hit that little feller I’ll” – represents Russia
    4. “If you strike my friend I’ll”- represents Germany
    5. “If you hit him” – represents France
    6. “Ho there. If you chaps”- represents Britain
  2. In the second slide, the men who are circled in blue are on one side and the men circled in yellow are on the opposing side. Team blue consists of the countries: Serbia, Russia, France and Britain. All four of these countries are in conflict with the yellow side which are the countries Austria-Hungary and Germany. This illustrates the two distinct sides that fought against each other during WWI.
  3. The circled character on slide three, represents the country of Serbia. It is represented as a child because, in comparison to the large Austria-Hungarian Empire, it lacks size and power. Also, it was a country that was dependent on other countries for defensive help.
  4. The three men that are circled represent Germany, France and Britain. All three of these countries are the furthest back on The Chain of Friendship because they joined the war later than the other countries in this cartoon. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, however, Germany only declared war on Serbia-Russia on August 1, 1914. France becomes part of the war on August 3, 1914, when Germany declares war on it. And Britain declares war on Germany after Germany violated Belgium’s neutrality on August 4, 1914.
  5. The two men that are circled on slide five represent Germany and Britain. These countries fought on opposite side of the war. The reason that they are circled is that Germany was the cause of Britain joining the war. On August 4, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, who had declared themselves neutral. This caused Britain to declare war on Germany, and thus join the war.
  6. WWI began when Austria, with German support, told Serbia to punish those involved in the assassination and suppress nationalism on July 23, and Serbia did not allow an Austrian inquiry on the matter. This caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, which then caused Russia to order a general mobilization on July 31, in support of Serbia. Then, Germany holds true to its word by declaring war on Serbia-Russia on August 1, 1914. This is followed by France ordering a general mobilization which causes Germany to declare war on France on August 3, 1914. The following day, Germany invades Belgium, who had declared themselves neutral, which then causes Britain to declare war on Germany for violating Belgium’s neutrality.
  7. Analysis
    1. This cartoon was written by the perspective of the Serbian perspective. The reason for this belief is that in the cartoon, Serbia is being controlled by Austria- Hungary, which makes it appear as though they are the victims and Austria-Hungary is the bully.
    2. The first country is depicted as a child because Serbia was a less powerful and less large of a country who was dependent on others for support.
    3. The title, The chain of Friendship, is possibly an ironic one. There are both friends and enemies within this chain and coming to the defense od one friend could cause more harm to another, which could be an example of situational irony.