- How do the formation of rocks affect your life?
Intrusive igneous rocks often form mineral deposits. These metals are everywhere in my daily life, such as electronic parts of my laptop. Limestone is a common type of non-clastic sedimentary rock. Chalk, made from limestone, is one of my favourite art mediums to work with when working on a large expressive work. Graphite is found in metamorphic and igneous rocks and affects my life being a key component of pencils lead.
- In what ways is the rock cycle affected by the energy within the earth, the atmosphere, and the hydrosphere?
The energy, high temperatures and pressure, from within the earth changes igneous and sedimentary rocks into metamorphic rocks. This energy also pushes lava and rocks up, determining whether the igneous rock is intrusive or extrusive. The atmosphere and hydrosphere erode the exposed rocks. These two spheres also transport small particles, creating layers that are pressured down by the more layers collected above and forming sedimentary rocks. Earth’s internal energy may later change these rocks into metamorphic rocks and the rock cycle is continued.
- Explain why sedimentary rocks usually do not contain metallic minerals.
Sedimentary rocks usually do not contain metallic minerals because they are formed by small inorganic (clastic) or organic (non-clastic) materials that forms a rock through pressure. The denser metallic minerals are deposited in the rivers, rather than carried all the way to the oceans.
- Look ahead to the map on page 87, explain where in Canada you would expect to find metamorphic rocks forming.
Metamorphic rocks are found where plates collide and there is massive heat and pressure that are required for metamorphic rocks to form. In Canada, we find metamorphic rocks forming where mountain ranges eroded and are exposed, such as the Canadian Shield, and can expect forming where plates collide to form new mountain ranges, such as the Rocky Mountains.
- If you were attempting to discover oil and gas deposits in Canada, what conditions would you be looking for?
Oil and gas deposits are created within sedimentary rocks, where the pressure pushes out the oil and gas out of the rocks. In Canada, we would look for sedimentary rocks that are folded to trap the oil/gas into a reservoir under groundwater.
- Explain how it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that appear layered.
Metamorphic rocks may have veins of minerals along the layers, created with the heat and pressure needed to become metamorphic. Because of the pressure, metamorphic rocks are also more denser and harder.
- Use the rock type map of Canada to identify the major rock types for each province/territory and the possible resources that may add to their economy.
BC/Yukon = Intrusive, Volcanic, Sedimentary (Metallic minerals)
Alberta = Sedimentary (Oil, Natural gases)
Saskatchewan = Sedimentary, Metamorphic (Oil, Natural gases)
Northwest Territories/Manitoba/Ontario = Sedimentary, Intrusive (Metallic minerals, oil)
Quebec/Newfoundland and Labrador/Nunavut = Intrusive, Metamorphic (Minerals, Durable building materials)
Nova Scotia/ New Brunswick/ PEI = Intrusive, Sedimentary (Minerals)
- Explain how rocks can affect politics and economics around the world. Give specific examples
These different types of rocks can affect politics and economics through the different resources we can gather from them. Fossil fuels and metals are resources traded around the world, with the prices constantly changing depending on the supply and demand. The metals are also a cause of people migrating to dig up precious metals. For example, the gold rush brought people to the west coast of North America.