Asexual reproduction needs one organism to form a clone. Meaning that all genes come from one parent, so it is genetically identical.
Types of asexual reproduction
Binary: one cell organism splitting into 2 identical copies
Budding: is the splitting of an organism into both, having the same DNA. For example, yeast and hydra
Fragmentation: organism reproduce by breaking into pieces
Vegetative reproduction: form of asexual reproduction in plants. New plant grows from a vegetative part
Spore formation: single cells that grows into a new organism. Like bacteria, micro-organism and fungi
- Many offspring are reproduced quickly from one parent
- The more clones, the better survivals of species
- No need to find a mate
- One wrong mutation can destroy a large numbers of offspring
- Some offspring get close together and fight for food and space
- Poor conditions can wipe out whole colonies
Sexual reproduction needs both male and female organism. It combines genes from a mother and a father to make a genetically unique organism.
- More genetic variation species
- Children are different from parents
- Able to produce more offspring because of mate
- Slower reproduction rate
- Less reliable reproduction
- Takes a while and energy to find a mate
Mitosis is where the cell cycle content divides and forms 2 daughter nuclei, making copies. It produces 2 identical daughter cells from one parent. Also used in asexual reproduction. There are 4 steps to this and that is…
- prophase: nucleus disappears, centriole and spindle fibers form chromosomes
- Metaphase: chromosomes line up down the middle
- Anaphase: the centromeres break apart the daughter chromatids
- Telophase: 2 nucleus membranes form and spindle fiber begins to disappear
Meiosis is a cell division that requires 2 parents. Its a two step division, meiosis I and meiosis II, which is PMAT times 2. It starts off with 46 chromosomes and ends with 23 and all cells are different from each other.
Mitosis is only one cell division, but meiosis is a 2 cell division. Meaning mitosis makes identical copies but meiosis does not. One is a reproduction process, when asexual reproduction is used in mitosis. Another difference is that mitosis occurs in all organism, meanwhile meiosis only occurs in humans, animals, plants, and fungi.
Every living organism starts life as a single cell. As it grows, it adds more cells to form more tissues. Growth and development are not the same. Growth is the increasing size and mass of an organism, while development is the transformation of the organism as its growing through the growth process. Some organisms growing has extreme transformations, just like a butterfly. They start off small and grow big, and their end results are just like their parents. Some organisms can take a long or short time to grow, and they don’t live forever. Some might live for many years and other only for a few days. Also when a cell gets injured or bruised, it has to grow new cells, which is the process of mitosis.
Internal fertilization: is when sperm cells go into the female body and meet an egg cell. The sperm penetrates the egg and the fetus starts to develop
External fertilization: is a male organism’s sperm fertilizing a female organism’s egg outside of the female’s body
Pollination: the transfer of pollen to a plant for fertilization
Fetal development: is a antenatal human between the embryonic state and birth
Mating/methods of fertilization: is the process by which gametes arrive in the same place at the same time