For my astronomy wonder project, I looked into what planets outside of Earth could potentially be habitable by humans. The planets I investigated were Mars, and TRAPPIST-1e. The latter is named for the telescope that discovered it, thus the odd name.
Firstly, Mars. It orbits our own sun and is just 54.6 million kilometres away. That sounds far, but it would only take us about a year to get there if we went when the Earth is at its closest to Mars (as opposed to a few decades). Large ice layers were recently discovered just a few feet under the surface of the planet, which would provide drinking water to anyone living there (see image below). The gravity is 0.376 of Earth’s, which would make the weight of an average 150-pound male human only 57 pounds. The days there are close to the same length as ours, but the years are far longer – it takes Mars 687 days to go around the sun! The temperature is anywhere from 20º to -50º Celsius, primarily on the lower end of that. Humans cannot survive temperatures that far below 0º for extended periods of time, which creates a problem with trying to live there. The other problem with colonizing Mars is the atmosphere. On Earth, the atmosphere is mostly Nitrogen and Oxygen. On Mars, it is made up of Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Argon, and a variety of trace gasses. If one were to compare those lists, one would notice that only one of the primary gasses is shared between them. This would mean that if humans were to colonize Mars, we would need something to maintain a viable atmosphere and temperature.
But let’s look outside the solar system. The TRAPPIST-1 star is 39 light-years away from Earth, which would make it nearly impossible to get there in a timely manner. The characteristic that gives this planet potential as a new home is water availability. It is very likely that there is liquid water on the surface. In addition, its gravity is very close to that of Earth – 0.93 of what we are used to. This would make the example 150-pound man mentioned earlier weigh about 140 pounds. A year on TRAPPIST-1e would last only 6 days. As to the length of the days – we don’t know. It is likely that the planet does not rotate like Earth does, meaning that one side is always facing the sun, and the other side is always dark. If we were to settle there, it would have to be on the border of light and dark, where a balance of temperatures would exist. As with Mars, the atmosphere would probably be an issue. But, we don’t know what the air there is made of. For all we know, it’s perfectly viable. But it is most likely not. The chances of another planet having an atmosphere the same as Earth’s are astronomical.
So, while TRAPPIST-1e might be a lovely place to live if we could get there, Mars seems to be our best option fo colonization. Despite this, there are some serious obstacles to living there, too. A human exposed to Mars’ atmosphere would suffocate in minutes without a space suit. But, with a little more technology, we may soon be able to live on Mars.
1) What questions did you need to research in order to research your topic?
What makes Earth habitable? What is Mars’/TRAPPIST-1e’s atmosphere; gravity; day/year length; distance from Earth
2) What new or familiar digital tools did you try to use as you worked through this project?
Gale topic finder; Google
3) What was the process you used to investigate the topic?
I determined what makes Earth habitable, and looked for other planets with those qualities
4) How did you verify and cite the information you found?
I made sure that I could find the same information in at least two places (other than Wikipeia)
5) How did the process of completing this challenge go? What could you have done better?
I could have improved the quality/number of images in my final post.
An antibiotic is a medicine which is used to treat bacterial infections as well as diseases caused by bacteria. It works by targeting certain characteristics of foreign cells that are not present in human cells. For example, the antibiotic Penicillin prevents bacteria from forming a cell wall (which human cells don’t have). This leaves the bacteria vulnerable to the body’s defences. Ironically, antibiotics that kill bacteria are made from bacteria themselves.
Above: Chemical structure of Penicillin
The greatest advancement in antibiotic technology was the discovery of Penicillin by Alexander Flemming. He found that a certain fungus would quickly kill a certain type of bacteria which caused infection in wounds. It would do this even if diluted 800 times. Since then, antibiotics have become common, and many advancements have been made which bettered the lives of people who suffer from certain diseases.
Above: Alexander Flemming
How did the Holocaust happen?
laws were gradually implemented which both demonized groups which Hitler did not like and allowed the persecution of those groups to be legal.
How did group, location, and World War II events impact an individual’s experience?
Group – Jews, Socialists, Communists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Roma, homosexuals and the mentally ill were persecuted while those who did not fall into the above categories were left alone.
Location – Crimes were committed against those in Nazi-controlled countries, while those in countries under the control of the Allies were left alone. In addition, the specific concentration camp where one was incarcerated impacted the way a person was treated. Auschwitz was one of the worst.
World War II events – after D-Day, persecution decreased dramatically, most likely because the Germans were busy fighting.
What I learned about democratic socialism:
That a lot of emphasis is placed on social welfare programs, and people have a lot of individual freedom, but not as much as liberalism grants
Ideas my group came up with as to socialist ideas:
They would permit protesting, but not endorse it
What I found interesting about the activity:
Our clss is full of Facists.
What I found challenging about the activity:
giving the political opinions of Socialists while remaining politically neutral.
Racism was very prevalent in America in the past. However, the state of racism in the present may alarm you.
In the past, black people had little freedom, even being restricted in which seats they could sit in on the bus. While that is not so now, black people are far more likely than others to be pulled over by the police. In the past, the Ku Klux Klan lynched (hung) black people. Currently, they are an underground organization, but they still exist! Finally, in the past black people were required to use different facilities (especially bathrooms) than those used by white people. This is one thing that has greatly improved.