Lactase and Glucose Lab

Purpose: To explore the purpose of the lactase enzyme and how it affects lactose levels to increase glucose. This experiment explores the unique effects the lactase enzyme has on milk, specifically, how effectively, and how much enzyme is required to properly break down the lactose in the milk, leaving higher glucose levels.  This purpose of this experiment is to find out how the level of lactase enzyme can affect the rate of the reaction to leave more glucose. Our hypothesis is that the more lactase enzyme is used, the more the lactase and lactose will react, leaving higher glucose levels, than with a lower volume of lactase enzyme.

MATERIALS

  • Lactase
  • 75 mL of 2% milk
  • 6 test tubes
  • Stirring rod
  • 12 glucose test strips
  • Test tube rack
  • 25ml graduated cylinder
  • 80mL glass beaker
  • Stoppers
  • Timer

Lab procedure

 

  1. Number test tubes from 1-6
  2. Measure out and add 15mL of skim milk to each test tube.
  3. Test glucose levels in each test tube, record in data table
  4. Keep test tube 1 as a control group, do not alter anything in test tube 1
  5. Wait 2 minutes and measure the glucose levels of test tube 1
  6. Record results in the Data table below
  7. Add 2 drop of lactase to test tube 2
  8. Wait 2 minutes, and measure the glucose levels of test tube 2
  9. Record results in the Data table below
  10. Add 4 drops of lactase to test tube 3
  11. Wait 2 minutes and measure the glucose levels of test tube 3
  12. Record results in the Data table below
  13. Add  6 drops of lactase to test tube 4
  14. Wait 2 minutes and measure the glucose levels of test tube 4
  15. Record results in the Data table below
  16. Add 8 drops of lactase to test tube 5
  17. Wait 2 minutes and measure the glucose levels of test tube 5
  18. Record results in the Data table below
  19. Add 10 drops of lactase to test tube 6
  20. Wait 2 minutes and measure the glucose levels of test tube 6
  21. Record results in the Data table below
  22. Clean and put away all equipment

 

 

 

Data and observations

Test Tube Lactose/skim milk (mL) Glucose level before Drops of Lactose Glucose levels after change of Glucose levels
1 15mL 0.0 0 0.0 0.0
2 15mL 0.0 2 28 28
3 15mL 0.0 4 14 14
4 15mL 0.0 6 28 28
5 15mL 0.0 8 56 56
6 15mL 0.0 10 111 111

Analysis + Conclusion

Things to discuss in your group:

  1. What factors can affect the reaction rate for an enzyme-mediated reaction

The factors are: the PH, the temperature, the enzyme concentration, the substrate concentration, inhibitors and activators.

  1. What do we know about lactase

The lactase will be able to withstand the acid PH of the stomach so that the pill is going to be activated in the small intestine.

  1. What are we curious about / what would be beneficial to test

We would like to know what is the purpose of the lactase in our body and how its enzymes act against lactose intolerance

  1. What scientific method steps will we use
  2. By step: 1) ask a question 2) do background research, 3) construct a hypothesis, 4) test the hypothesis with an experiment 5) if the procedure works, keep going if not restart the experiment, 6) analyze data and do the conclusion, 7) if the results align with the hypothesis then communicate results and if not start again from the hypothesis.
  3. What scientific process skills will we use

We will use: 1) observing, 2) classifying, 3) measuring, 4) communicating, 5) inferring, 6) predicting

  1. What factors can affect our reaction / how do we ensure this is a controlled experiment

The factors that could affect our reaction are: if putting too much lactose maybe the lactase we put inside won’t be enough to “digest” the lactose, we can’t exactly reproduce the conditions of our stomach. The experiment is controlled because we have precise data and we are measuring everything.

 

 

 

 

 

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agar lab

  1. 1. The cube that proved itself to be the most efficient when it came to diffusion was the 1 cm cube. 

     

     

     

    2. I believe that the smaller size that this cube had, allowed for the diffusion to be more easily and rapidly expand across the cube. Thanks to its volume to surface area ratio. This cube had the highest ratio out of all the others, therefore having a higher diffusion efficiency.

    3. Because the cells would be less efficient in the process of diffusion, which is an important process in cells, as it helps export nutrients, water, and oxygen between living cells. It would take much more time to diffuse if they were larger.

    4. Out of the three cubes (A, B, and C), C (4:1) would be the most efficient in maximizing diffusion as it has the lowest Surface to Volume ratio out of the three cubes. The higher ratio means that this cube has less volume and less surface area, so it would be easier to diffuse.

    5. We have bigger organs that are made up of smaller cells. This allows for covering the maximum amount of surface area so that gases can be exchanged much more efficiently.

    6. Because of the SA: Volume the ratio decreases as the size of an object decreases as demonstrated by the lab data. There is a ratio limit where the size is too large to be able to diffuse efficiently and provide nutrients, water, and oxygen.

    7. The variety of cells is an advantage that multicellular organisms have. This is because each type of cell has its own function to do, each one being more complex compared to unicellular organisms. Being multicellular, different organs to have different functions such as the organs in the circulatory, digestive, reproductive, and respiratory systems.

Protein Synthesis Lab

 

1. Translation:

Is the process in which the code carried by mRNA is converted into a polypeptide. There are multiple steps within the process. These steps are initiation, elongation, and termination

Initiation:

The mRNA binds to the small ribosomal unit (the bottom piece of the ribosome). The small and large ribosomal units then attach. The mRNA is actually the key to starting the entire process as the P-site must read the start codon AUG which permanently stays on the mRNA. In the image below, you are able to see the mRNA is being read by the P-site on the ribosome. This is the process of initiation and how it works.

 

Elongation:

The A-site reads the next codon in the mRNA and then it brings in matching complimentary tRNA, tRNA has 3 letter codes called anticodons that are complementary to the codons on the mRNA. The new tRNA binds to the P-site, and another one binds to the A-site. The amino acid in the A-site then let’s go of the tRNA in the A-site and binds to the neighboring amino acid in the P-site. This is the process for elongation. The image below shows how the amino acids lets go of the tRNA in the A- site and binds to the neighboring amino acid in the P- site.

 

Termination:

The mRNA is read by the ribosome also has what is called a stop codon. This codon is a signal for the ribosome to stop reading the mRNA and for the tRNA to stop binding there are no matches in the tRNA to go with the stop codon. After the stop codon has been read, no new amino acids are added to the chain. This leads the ribosome to split into the two units again. The fresh polypeptide is then released and ready for use. This is how the last process works.

 

2. The materials used in this lab showed really well how translation works and what the mRNA actually does. There were a few problems though the first on had to be that you are not able to see how the ribosome actually splits. And the other issue was that we only had one ribosomal unit and the actual process uses two. These were the only inaccurate things in this lab. It was a lot of fun building the chains of amino acids and exploring how everything in DNA and mRNA works.

 

Pedestrian Persuasive Video assignment

I will have to say technology is a blessing because it helps us with everyday problems and a great tool for school research and projects. Technology is very helpful for detectives and to track down phones of missing people, and social media that is downloaded on our technology spreads information that is important such as a school shooting, or a kidnapping, or a dangerous person who walks around town, this information is extremely important and if it weren’t for people on social media spreading this news like wildfire then a lot of people would not know and then more kids will be kidnapped or more shootings will occur. Another thing that technological devices help with movements like #BlackLivesMatter so black people can be employed and that they can vote. And that technology really helped with this important event. And that technology is a huge part of modern medicine especially all the machines such as MRI’S, CAT scans, and x rays. Also, with technology, they were able to invent machines that can test your blood and find hidden diseases. Also, there is this machine that only takes one drop of blood for the test instead of taking a whole test tube, and people are not as afraid to get them done since there are no needles. Our society advanced and it is important because we have a new way of communication, entertainment, and safety. If I ever need to contact an emergency service instead of running to a landline, I can pull out my mobile device and call for help, that is a big part of safety knowing that nothing can happen to you. And having that advantage to access the internet to research certain projects and all the information that pops up and that you can use, instead of going to the library and searching for information by hand. And helpful proofreaders such as Grammarly help with essays, job applications, and many more uses. I don’t understand how people can blame technology for problems that they are experiencing with social communication even though it’s the person’s choice to stay on their device all the time. It should be used moderately and not overused.

 

 

DNA molecule project

  1. Explain the structure of DNA – use the terms nucleotides, antiparallel, strands, and complementary base pairing.

 

DNA is made up of sugars, phosphates, and nitrogen. The sugars and phosphates create the two backbones made of sugar-phosphates and nucleotides. The bases of the nucleotides are inside the ladder shape. The two strands of DNA are antiparallel as they are read in opposite directions. Certain bases attract each other and create what is called complementary base pairing. There are four bases Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine. The two pieces of DNA are kept together by hydrogen bonds in the middle of the nucleic acid. DNA is replicated by being split into two by a helicase and then the two strands are paired with different strands through complementary base pairing. This process is called  DNA polymerase. The result is two identical DNA strands. This is the only process for how DNA is able to replicate.

2. This activity really explained DNA replication and how it can twist into a double helix, also it was a lot easier to build in in 3D then to see it on an image. To improve the project I think that we should use mini marshmallows to represent the complementary base pairing and twizzlers or some long piece of candy to form the two backbones. But the watermelon gummy and the two bigfoot gummies did a great job representing DNA polymerase and the unzipping of DNA.

 

The DNA twisted into a double helix

 

 

The unzipping of DNA with the watermelon showing the DNA helicase

 

 

The strands are now separated and the big blue foot candy shows the DNA polymerase that find different strands for complementary base pairing

 

 

The end product is two identical strands of DNA

The Cosine Law week 17

This week I learned the cosine law and how to solve triangles while using the law. The cosine law is used to solve the third side length of a triangle. There are 2 formulas for the cosine law one is used to solve a side length and the other formula is used to solve a missing angle or \ theta. The formula used for the side length is a2 = b2 + c2 – 2bc cos A.  The beauty of the cosine formula is that you can re arrange and find any letter you want without making any negative variables so it makes it easier. The angle formula is the formula that I used for my example to figure out an angle. And with cosine its not only solving right angle triangles but other ones as well. And if the triangle has 2 angles given to you then you can subtract the 2 angles from 180 to get the third angle so you don’t need to use the cosine law at all. In my example I had to find 2 angles using the rearranged cosine law formula and I substituted the letters to make it less confusing for me. I found solving triangles with the cosine law pretty easy because you just need to substitute the letters that you are looking for.

My example with the rearranged cosine formula. And after you get the answer make sure to inverse cosine to get the angle!

 

Dividing rational expressions week 16

A couple of weeks ago I learned how to divide rational expressions. The first step is to cross out any numbers that reduce so you can make the fraction smaller, or if its factorable then factor it. The second step is to reciprocal which also means flip the fraction and then after that multiply straight across and if the factored denominator has the same factor at the top then you can cross them out and then after multiply straight across the top and straight across the bottom.

The example I used required me to factor so you can get a better understanding of what I meant.

 

Blog post week 15 solving addition and subtraction rational equations

This week I learned how to add and subtract rational expressions and how to solve for a variable value. The first step is to make the denominators the same and to do that you multiply it by the lowest common multiple, and then you multiply the top with the same denominators. In my example I show how I did that and then after that I made an equation and since it was a linear equation I had to move the variables to one side and then collect the like terms and after solve for my variable. So it was simple algebra, the only thing I found confusing was multiplying the denominators with the numerators because they had to be the same. Then slowly I understood how to do it and now have a good understanding of which denominator goes with each numerator.

Blog post week 14

This week I learned how to multiply and divide rational expressions by factoring to get the restrictions for only the denominator.

My example is how to divide rational expressions. The first step is to factor, the second step is to state the restrictions, the third step is to flip over the fraction (reciprocal) and multiply from across to bottom. Then scratch out what is common and whatever is left that is your answer. I find this really easy because I love working with fractions and it is not that complicated. I find multiplication easier than dividing because then you can factor the expressions and then state your restrictions and the last step to multiply and scratch out the common expressions. There is no reciprocal required. And in my example there is a difference of squares so the factored form will be conjugates which is really easy. With this unit factoring is the key component because it tells the most important part the restrictions for x or any variable.

My division example that I used and simplified.

Blog post week 13

This week I learned how to graph and solve reciprocal functions. So to solve the function you must factor it to get the roots, or also known as the x ints. So the graph has 2 solutions. And to know if a reciprocal function has no solutions that means that it doesn’t factor and has extraneous roots. And if you don’t have an equation but a graph instead you would know that it doesn’t have any solutions if the graph doesn’t cross the x ints. My example I solved had 2 solutions because it had 2 roots.

My example that I used and explained