The Effect Temperature Has on Enzymes

Names: Avery, Hanna, Gracyn, Manroop

Title: The Effect Temperature has on Enzymes 

  • 2 400 mL beakers
  • Hot plate
  • Ice 
  • 2 stirring rods
  • 2 thermometers
  • Test tube rack
  • Test tube tongs
  • Eyedropper
  • Graduated Cylinder 

 

Procedure: 

  1. Measure out 10mL of milk into 4 test tubes
  2. Put room temperature water (20 degrees Celsius) into one 400mL beaker. Monitor with a thermometer.
  3. Put cold water (10 degrees Celsius) into the next 400mL beaker. Monitor with a thermometer.
  4. Put hot water (30 degrees Celsius) into the next 400mL beaker. Monitor with a thermometer.
  5. Put hotter water (above 45 degrees Celsius) into the last 400mL beaker. Monitor with a thermometer.
  6. Place one of the milk test tubes into each of the beakers. Place a thermometer in the test tube and watch for the temperature of the milk in the test tube to match the temperature of the water in the beaker.
  7. Once the test tubes get to the correct temperature, place 2 drops of the enzyme into each test tube and set a timer for 1 minute.
  8. After one minute, insert a glucose strip into each test tube, take it out, and observe the colour of the strip.
  9. Match up the colour observed on the strip with the colour on the glucose strip bottle.

 

 

Temperature  Colour of Glucose Test Strip

 

Trace of Glucose 

 

10°C

 

Teal/Light Green

 

6 mmol/L

 

23°C

 

Peanut Brown 

 

56 mmol/L

 

33°C

 

Dark Brown

 

111+ mmol/L

 

65°C

 

Mint Blue

 

0 mmol/L

 

 

Graph: 

Questions: 

  1. What did the results show? At what temperature was there the most glucose present – why do you think this was the result?

 

The glucose strip revealed that the highest glucose count was at 33°C. We believe that this is because as the temperature increases the reaction rate also increases. Whereas, at the lowest temperature, 10°C, there was little glucose present in the test tube. 

 

  1. If the temperature continued to decrease what would happen to the glucose count? Why do you think this occurs?

 

At 10°C there was the least amount of glucose because the reaction rate is slower at this temperature, which means that we would have to leave the lactase enzyme in the lowest temperature for a longer time in order to get a higher glucose count. 

 

  1. Explain what happened after the enzyme was placed in the test tube above 45 degrees. 

 

Although the glucose count continued to grow as the temperature increased, at the highest temperature, 65°C, no glucose was present in the test tube. This happens because after the lactase enzyme is heated up to a certain temperature the enzyme starts to denature. 

 

Conclusion:

 

This lab helped us determine the effect of temperature on the reaction rate of enzyme reactions. We predicted that at the lowest temperature the glucose count would be the least and at the highest temperature no glucose would be present. Through this experiment, our hypothesis was proved to be correct. At the lowest temperature little glucose was present because the reaction rate decreases as the temperature lowers. At the highest temperature, 65°C, the glucose strip showed a negative result because the enzyme had denatured. The most glucose resulted in the test tube that was heated to 33°C, this is because enzymes denature at 45° or above, but since this was below that temperature it had the most glucose present. Overall, this lab gave us a clearer understanding of the relationship between temperature and enzymes. 

 

Errors/Improvement: 

 

To improve our lab design, we could’ve tested the lactase enzyme at a variety of  temperatures instead of only testing it at four. By doing so, we could get an even greater understanding of the effects of temperature. We think testing one test tube with an even colder temperatures than what were using in our experiment would be interesting. During the lab, it was also difficult to maintain a constant temperature. As well, our timing between dropping in the enzyme and dipping in the strip was not exactly equal between each test tube. For next time, we could be more accurate with this to get a more exact number on the glucose strip and better idea of the percent increase/decrease.

 

 

 

Everyday Acid Lab

Purpose: Find pH and [acid].

Materials:

Water

Safety Goggles
Beaker
Burette
Indicator: Phenolphthalein
Base: Sodium Hydroxide
Acid: Citric Acid
Ring stand
Funnel
Filter Paper
Graduated Cylinder

Procedure:

1. Weight candy powder.

2. Dissolve powder in 50 mL of water, filter is necessary.


3. Measure out 10 mL of acid solution.
4. Add a couple drops of phenolphthalein.
5. Fill burette with 0.100 M NaOH
6. Measure initial burette reading.


7. Titrate the solution until it turns pink.
8. Record final burette reading.
9. Repeat titration process 3 time.

Data:

 

Weight of powder: 2.02g

Weight of acid: 0.101g

Average volume used: 2.4mL

 

Conclusion: The final [acid] of the solution was 2.36×10^-2 M and the final pH was 1.6.

Agar Diffusion Lab

Hypothesis: Higher diffusion rates will be found in smaller cells because they have less volume and surface area.

 

Data table:

Cubes of agar:

After 1 minute in base solution:

After 9 minutes in base solution:

After 10 minutes, cut in half:

1. In terms of maximizing diffusion, what was the most effective size cube that you tested?

The smallest size 1cm3 was the most effective as it had 75% diffusion. The medium had a diffusion rate at 46% and the large at 30%.

2. Why was that size most effective at maximizing diffusion? What are the important factors that affect how materials diffuse into cells or tissues?

The surface area to volume ratio was higher than the other two cubes. Because of the small volume, the base was easier spread throughout the cube. Concentration, temperature, surface area and volume all affect diffusion rate as they affect reaction rates

3. If a large surface area is helpful to cells, why do cells not grow to be very large.

 

As the surface area increases, the volume also increases which causes a decrease in effectiveness. Because of this, cells tend to stay smaller.

4. You have three cubes A,B, and C. They have surface to volume rations of 3:1, 5:2, and 4:1 respectively. Which of these cubes is going to be the most effective at maximizing diffusion, how do you know this?

Out of the three cubes, the 4:1 ratio cube would be the most efficient because it has a high surface area to enable reactions and a low volume causing reactions to happen faster.

5. How does your body adapt surface area-to-volume ratios to help exchange gases?

Our bodies adapt to surface area to-volume ratios by using thin or elongated cell shapes. It also folds the cell membrane to aid gas exchange.

6. Why cant certain cells like bacteria get to the size of a small fish

Bacteria begins with a high SA:V ratio. However it beings to grow in volume, decreasing the ratio and diffusion rate. To regain this diffusion rate, it divides to decrease the volume. Because of this, it cant become as large as a small fish.

7. What are the advantages of large organisms being multicellular.

Multicellular organisms cause higher diffusion rates. This aids gas exchange in our body. Multicellular organisms can also have several functions, increasing their productivity.

DNA Protein Synthesis- Transcription and Translation

1. How is mRNA different than DNA?

mRNA is one stranded while DNA is two stranded. The function of mRNA is to copy the information of a strand of DNA which will be used to build a protein. Once that has been done, mRNA travels to the cytoplasm to contribute to protein building. The sugar for DNA is deoxyribose while the sugar for mRNA is ribose. mRNA also contains uracil and DNA contains thymine.

 

2. Describe the process of transcription.

The first step of transcription is when DNA unwinds and unzips itself where the gene being copied is situated. Next, the RNA polymerase then facilitates complimentary base pairing with the new mRNA strand. RNA polymerase is represented my the fuzzy peach. Uracil (brown bead) takes thymines (blue bead) place as the RNA polymerase continues to copy the gene. Once the gene is fully copied, the mRNA separates itself from the DNA. The molecule is then transferred out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm, bringing the instructions to build a protein with it.

3. How did today’s activity do a good job of modelling the process of RNA transcription? In what ways was our model inaccurate?

Today’s activity did a good modelling of how mRNA creates a new strand (red pipe cleaner) and uses uracil (brown beads) in place of thymine (blue beads). Our model however was inaccurate as it was sized the same length as DNA. In reality, DNA is much longer then mRNA. Also, the whole DNA strand was copied when in reality, only a segment where the target gene is situated will actually be copied.

 

DNA

 

RNA Polymerase begins to copy DNA to build mRNA

RNA Polymerase nearly done copying

mRNA strand complete and detaches from DNA

 

1. Describe the process of translation: initiation, elongation and termination.

The first step of translation, initiation is when a small ribosome subunit binds to the mRNA. A second subunit then binds to complete the ribosome. The ribosome (red paper) looks for the start codon AUG in the “P” site. When this codon is found, elongation begins. The ribosome brings in tRNA (green paper) to the “P” site with the matching codon. The tRNA also brings the matching amino acid. Next, another tRNA bonds to the codon in the “A” site, carrying a new amino acid. The tRNA in the “P” site then detaches, and the amino acid bonds with the amino acid that was attached to the tRNA in the “A” site. Since the “P” site is empty, the “A” site tRNA now becomes the new “P” site tRNA. This process continues until termination. When the ribosome reads the stop codon, there is no matching tRNA amino acid. Therefore, the polypeptide is released and the the ribosome detaches from the mRNA.

 

2. How did today’s activity do a good job of modelling the process of translation? In what ways was our model inaccurate?

 

Today’s activity did a good job in modelling the steps of translation. Using the paper cut outs, it became easier to visualize these steps. The model was inaccurate as the ribosome was in one whole piece instead of two subunits. Also, the amino acids were much more uniform instead of being randomly shaped.

 

 

Ribosome reads the start codon in the “p” site and matches tRNA carrying amino acid.

The next tRNA is matched in the “a” site carrying another amino acid.

The “p” site tRNA is detached and passes on its amino acid to the “a” site tRNA.

As “p” site is empty, “a” site tRNA fills it.

A new “a” site tRNA is matched with the appropriate codon. This process is continued.

Termination: The ribosome reads the stop codon. There is no amino acid matching this codon.

The tRNA and amino acid are detached from the ribosome.

 

 

DNA and Protein Synthesis

DNA
1. Explain the structure of DNA. Use the terms nucleotides, anti parallel and complimentary base pairing.
DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid is a large polymer made up of smaller nucleotide monomers. It has two backbones that create a double helix shape. These backbones are made up of sugar-phosphate (pink and white) while hydrogen bonds make ‘rungs’ of its latter shape. The two backbones are described as anti parallel as they read in opposite directions. One strand goes from 5’ to 3’ while the other goes from 3’ to 5’. The two different types of nucleotides in DNA are purines and pyramidines. Purines contain adenine and guanine while pyramidines contain thymine and cytosine. Adenine bonds with thymine. Guanine bonds with cytosine.

 

 

2. How does this activity help model the structure of DNA? What changes could we make to improve the accuracy of this model? Be detailed and constructive.

This activity helps to demonstrate the double helix structure of DNA. The pipe cleaners helped to represent the backbones of the structure, while we used beads to represent the different nucleotides. To improve the accuracy of this model, accurate measurements could’ve been used to better demonstrate the actual structure of DNA. The phosphate also could’ve been better placed to represent the anti parallel strands.

 

 

Replication

1. When does DNA replication occur?

DNA replication occurs when cells divide to grow, repair or replace other cells in in organism.

 

2. Name and describe the 3 steps involved in DNA replication. Why does the process occur differently on the “leading” and “lagging” strands?

The three stages of replication in DNA are unwinding, complimentary base pairing and joining.

Unwinding:

 

The helix unwinds the the two strands begin to unzip and the DNA helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds and the two backbones begin to separate.

Complimentary base pairing:

 

Complimentary base pairing is facilitated by DNA Polymerase. The nucleotides move into place and form H bonds with their partner strands to create new bonds. DNA Polymerase can only copy in the 5’-3’ direction.

Joining:

 

Nucleotides form covalent bonds in the new strand of DNA. The leading strand continues as DNA unzips.The lagging strand forms in the other direction in fragments and is connected together by DNA ligase.

The watermelon represents the DNA helicase as it unzips the DNA. The blue Bigfoot represents the DNA polymerase and the red Bigfoot represents the DNA ligase as it is joining fragmented strands on the lagging side.

 

The result is 2 identical daughter DNA, identical to parent DNA.

 

3. The model today wasn’t a great fit for the process we were exploring. What did you do to model the complimentary base pairing and joining of adjacent nucleotides steps of DNA replication. In what ways was this activity well suited to showing this process? In what ways was it inaccurate?

The activity was well suited in showing the formation of the leading strand. However, it was an inaccurate representation of the lagging strand as there were to fragments built in. Paper had to be used to represent the separation of fragments.

Desmos Art Function Card 2018

I used my knowledge from the units we learned to complete this project. I had been fairly competent with how to use desmos because I had been using it throughout the year to help me understand some of the graphing questions that have come up during homework. The most useful tool for me during this project was being able to transform, and translate functions so that they were placed correctly. Some functions are much easier to use and manipulate such as constant functions and circle functions. It became difficult to manipulate different types of functions to fit into my picture. It helped to restrict harder functions so that I could make them look like something in the picture. Another difficulty I faced was having to restrict every function. To help, I would make guide constant functions that I could use to find exactly where I needed restrictions. I removed these guides for the final picture. I also referred to my notes that I took in class to help me manipulate the functions. For example, changing amplitude of a sine function. A aha moment was when I was able to shade in the functions to add colour to the picture. I had to get help from some of my classmates for this but I eventually figured it out. By completing this project, it helped my further understand transformations and relations by constant usage of them. Since there was a bit of repetition, it became easier to decide what functions to use as they became more and more memorized in my head.

https://www.desmos.com/calculator/fvjjrztlqp

Avery Elrick

Poem Analysis

Analysis:

The poem ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas is a narrative poem written in 1823 by Clement C. Moore. It tells a story about Santa Claus delivering presents to children on Christmas Eve. This poem addresses a mythical phenomenon in the delivery of presents by Santa Claus. The narrator is speaking to the audience/reader. It’s most likely a child that has been woken up on Christmas Eve by the noise of Santa Claus delivering presents to his house. Unfamiliar words in this poem include, ‘kerchief, coursers and tarnished. Kerchief is something to cover your face. Coursers are swift horses. Tarnished means ruined or dirty. There’s no connotations, therefore all of the words are denotations. The words are simple and concrete creating an easy and enjoyable read for the audience. This poem has a cozy and anticipative tone. The narrator the narrator sets this tone at the begging in of the poem, “In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there.” The tone changes when the narrator hears the reindeer and sleigh outside. It then turns into an exiting tone. Each line of the poem has about 11-12 syllables and about 8-10 words. Examples of poetic devices in the poem are: onomatopoeia: clatter. Alliterations: flew like a flash, (repeating f sound) prancing and pawing (repeating p sound). Similes: His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry (comparing nose to a cherry and cheeks to roses, mostly referring to the colour red.) His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow (comparing a bow to his smile.) And the beard of his chin was as white as the snow (comparing the white of his beard to the white of snow.) The rhyme scheme of the poem is AABB. Imagery in this poem is very important. As a poem with few outside meanings, the author has created an imaginary scenario that many children can relate to. By describing the arrival of Santa Claus, images of childhood and Christmas morning are created throughout the poem. The title of the poem describes exactly what it is. The night before Christmas and Santa Claus’s arrival. The poem succeeds in bringing back past memories of Christmas and traditions that come with it. The imagery and words in the poem make it an intense reading experience. The reader is glued to the poem for it’s whole duration.

Poem:

1 ‘Twas the night before Christmas, when all thro’ the house,
2 Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
3 The stockings were hung by the chimney with care,
4 In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there;

5 The children were nestled all snug in their beds,
6 While visions of sugar plums danc’d in their heads,
7 And Mama in her ‘kerchief, and I in my cap,
8 Had just settled our brains for a long winter’s nap-

9 When out on the lawn there arose such a clatter,
10 I sprang from the bed to see what was the matter.
11 Away to the window I flew like a flash,
12 Tore open the shutters, and threw up the sash.

13 The moon on the breast of the new fallen snow,
14 Gave the lustre of mid-day to objects below;
15 When, what to my wondering eyes should appear,
16 But a minature sleigh, and eight tiny rein-deer,

17 With a little old driver, so lively and quick,
18 I knew in a moment it must be St. Nick.
19 More rapid than eagles his coursers they came,
20 And he whistled, and shouted, and call’d them by name:

21 “Now! Dasher, now! Dancer, now! Prancer, and Vixen,
22 “On! Comet, on! Cupid, on! Dunder and Blixem;
23 “To the top of the porch! to the top of the wall!
24 “Now dash away! dash away! dash away all!”

25 As dry leaves before the wild hurricane fly,
26 When they meet with an obstacle, mount to the sky;
27 So up to the house-top the coursers they flew,
28 With the sleigh full of Toys – and St. Nicholas too:

29 And then in a twinkling, I heard on the roof
30 The prancing and pawing of each little hoof.
31 As I drew in my head, and was turning around,
32 Down the chimney St. Nicholas came with a bound:

33 He was dress’d all in fur, from his head to his foot,
34 And his clothes were all tarnish’d with ashes and soot;
35 A bundle of toys was flung on his back,
36 And he look’d like a peddler just opening his pack:

37 His eyes – how they twinkled! his dimples how merry,
38 His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry;
39 His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,
40 And the beard of his chin was as white as the snow;

41 The stump of a pipe he held tight in his teeth,
42 And the smoke it encircled his head like a wreath.
43 He had a broad face, and a little round belly
44 That shook when he laugh’d, like a bowl full of jelly:

45 He was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf,
46 And I laugh’d when I saw him in spite of myself;
47 A wink of his eye and a twist of his head
48 Soon gave me to know I had nothing to dread.

49 He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work,
50 And fill’d all the stockings; then turn’d with a jerk,
51 And laying his finger aside of his nose
52 And giving a nod, up the chimney he rose.

53 He sprung to his sleigh, to his team gave a whistle,
54 And away they all flew, like the down of a thistle:
55 But I heard him exclaim, ere he drove out of sight-
56 Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night.

Picture Choice:

#1 This picture directly represents what is going on in the poem. A silent warm feeling with the stockings hung up captures what the author was writing about.
findcoffeetables.com

#2 This part of the poem creates vivid imagery about the family going to sleep in wait for the morning. This picture shows how sound asleep everyone is when Santa is coming.

#3 This image shows what the author is trying to say when he see’s through the window when he is awaken from sleep.

#4 This picture shows the brightness of the moon that makes it look like midday, as it states in the poem.
komandor.com

#5 While reading this part of the poem, I imagined looking out the window to see if Santa has come. This picture is something I would imagine doing when I was little, which is the whole point of the poem.
www.alamy.com

#6 This picture is Santa giving orders to the reindeer like in movies or stories. This is an iconic part of any Santa story.
k99.com

#7 Besides the reindeer, Santa is also known for his sack of toys that he brings children every year. This picture shows a heaping bag of toys.
https://www.pinterest.ca/hijk54/the-magic-of-santa-and-his-reindeer/

#8 Santa Claus coming down your chimney to deliver the presents is a clear image that is portrayed by this picture. It makes me think of peeking out of my room to see if there’s presents yet.
http://www.adenauart.com

#9 This picture embeds Santa’s physique, and his infamous red suit as it says in the poem.
https://fr.depositphotos.com/35465169/stock-photo-merry-christmas-santa-claus-holding.html

#10 This part of the poem focuses on Santa’s facial features as well as his smile. This reminds me of going to the mall to take a picture with Santa and he would always have rose cheeks.
The Student Santa
#11 Santa’s pipe represents his age and wisdom. During this part of the poem this is brought up.
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/190910471677852016/

#12 As a kid, it was always a mystery of what Santa Claus would do if you caught him giving presents. The author tells what happened from his point of view as Santa winks at him.
https://patch.com/new-jersey/ridgewood/track-santas-trek-ridgewood-and-glen-rock

#13 Santa filling stockings on Christmas is a tradition that the author is sure to include in this poem. This picture shows the process of this phenomenon as it takes place. https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/176133035404329248/

#14 As a way to conclude the poem, Moore writes about the departure of Santa Claus. This photo captures the departure as Santa is waving goodbye to the audience as he goes on to deliver more presents. https://twitter.com/elsalvadorcom/status/547898371646971905

Music Choice:

Mariah Carey All I Want For Christmas Is You. This song suits the poem because it begins with a soft soothing tone, as everyone is asleep and the house is silent. It then changes into a more energetic and uplifting tone when Santa arrives in the poem.

 

Powerpoint:

Twas the Night Before Christmas final-2gwmfe2