English Cival war 1625-1649
Charles did not rule according to the law
William Prynne is in a Pillory for seditious libel
Source: Crossroads a Meeting of Nations Pg 135
Charles not ruling according to the law had an obvious influence on the Civil War and the Magna Carta was a ducment put in place to have everyone including the king follow the law. But Charles believed in the opposite of this and followed after his father foot steps. He believed in the Divine Right of kings stating that kings are justly called Gods and have absolute power. An example of this is Charles being very much against freedom of speech and him cutting of people’s ears for libel, after he stool the common’s people land. Charles used a Court of Star Chamber to convict, fine and imprison innocent people. This cause of Charles not ruling according to the law also involves many other causes of the civil war like Charles obtaining money without parliments consent and Charles attacking puritans. In conclusion this cause is what had the biggest influence on the civil war.
Solemn League and Covenant
The document that was an alliance between the Scottish and parliament
The solemn League and covenant was an extremely siginificant component in the civil war because if this document was not signed the civil war may have resulted in a different outcome. The solemn league and covenant was an alliance between the English Parliament and the Scottish. Also this component is related to The New Model Army because of the renforcement of the army. It’s immediate purpose was to overwhelm the royalist, who seemed to be in a strong position to win the civil war and this definitely helped the Parliament.
New Model Army
The New Model Army was established to reinforce Parliaments Army
The New Model Army shaped the outcome of the of the civil war. This New parliamentary army lead Cromwell into defeating the royalist in the battle of Naseby and the army was a military force based on a persons ability rather than on your position within society. Cromwell who was one of the main leaders in parliment to organize this New Model Army did not care about labels. The solemn league and covenant involves the New Model Army as well. Also this army, “had God on there side.” Lastly The New Model Army was a key to the parliaments success because it put all the other steps into place for them to capture the King.
Battle of Naseby
Charles I is leading his Army into battle
The Battle of Naseby is the most significant component in the Civil war because it is the turning point. Prior to this Battle there was no obvious indication that either the Roundheads or the royalist had any military advantage. However, the overwhelming defeat of the royalist ended this and almost certainly doomed Charles I to his defeat. This lead to a downhill spiral for royalist and an obvious victory for the Parliament.
Execution of Charles I
Charles I is beheaded in front of the public
Charles I execution was the most significant consequence because it had an immediate and long term effect. Charles I was charged with high treason and the only allegation for that is death. This execution was so controversial because Charles was the first Monarch to ever be executed. This also resulted in England becoming a republic for the first time in history instead of a Monarchy. But Cromwells rule was disliked and lead to the return of the Monarchy on behave of Charles II. England would then remain a monarchy till the end of time.
Cromwell and the Republic 1649-1661
Instrument of Government appoints Cromwell Lord Protector
Cromwell refused to become king of England, he ruled as Lord Protector
Instrument of government appoints Cromwell lord protector is a significant event because it had an immediate impact. This made England a military dictatorship which has never been done before, and split England into twelve districts. Giving Cromwell these powers of a Lord Protector gave him similar or more powers then the king. Also this allowed Cromwell to have absolute power when parliament was dissolved and he used it to his advantage. For example he created the blue laws and the puritan commission which were both very unpopular. Potentially Cromwell could have followed Charles foot steps and drove England into another civil war because of how much power he had which was very scary, but he just influenced the return of the monarchy.
General Monck recalls Parliament and invites Charles II to be King
Charles II coming back to England to become Monarch
General Monck recalling Parliament and inviting Charles II to be king was a significant event because it was the turning point. After Cromwell died and his son resigned to be lord protector, England was on the verge of anarchy. General Monck then saw a opportunity to come to England with his army and recall parliament. After he ordered an election for a new parliament, they invited Charles II to be king and the Monarchy was restored. With no other ligament leaders in England General Monck could have taken the country in many different directions. England was on the verge of anarchy and the people having no one to look up to their possibly could have been another civil war. In conclusion government was back to the way it was and the Monarchy was restored.
Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy 1661-1685
Parliament passes the Test Act
A document prohibiting Catholics in high office or Parliament
Parliament passing the test act had a significant immediate and long term effect. The Test Act was ducment put in place to prevent Catholics from being in parliament or holding any other high office. The immediate effect was controversial because Charles II just made an alliance with France that made him a Catholic but parliament did not know that until his death. Also Charles brother James II was a Catholic who was the next in line to become the King of England. The long term effect was that James II was always violating the Test Act by appointing Catholics to government positions. This means if the Test Act was not put in place the glorious revolution may have never happened because Parliament would have liked James II more and not have invited Mary to become Queen. Finally Parliament passing the Test Act was the most significant component because of the long term effect.
James II and the Glorious Revolution
James II violates the Test Act appointing Catholics to government positions
James II who is a Catholic
James II violating the test act and appointing Catholics to government positions had a massive impact on the Glorious revolution. The Test Act was ducment put in place to prevent Catholics from being in parliament or holding any other high office. Already parliment did not like James II because he was a Catholic but then he started appointing Catholics to government positions. This is what influenced Parliament to make the decision that they had to replace James II. Then parliament decided to invite Mary and William to become King and Queen and James II abdicated the throne. In conclusion if James II did not violate the Test Act, the Glorious Revolution may have never happened and it was the first time parliament chose the Monarch instead of hereditary right.
Bill of Rights
The document that changed life in England
The Bill of Rights is a significant component because of its long term effects. The Bill of Rights showed that parliament was the supreme leader of the country and they choose the monarch. Once again this document limited the power of the Monarch and gave more control to parliament. This also lead many other countries to make their own versions of the Bill of Rights. Through the Bill of Rights common’s people life was enhanced by giving them freedom of speech and government vote. Overall this made a standard for many countries and was the start of what law resembles today.