January 25

My environmental interactions

In my daily interactions I came upon many positive and negative consequences. On an average day on the weekend a few thing I encountered were, taking out the garbage and recycle, eating three full meals, watching TV in my house, going to the pool  and taking my dogs out for a walk. Taking out the garbage and doing recycling is a positive consequence because recycling helps the environment by reusing and reducing the waste of plastic and garbage around the Earth. A negative interaction I did was watching TV, by doing this I was waisting electricity that could have been used for something else. I ate all of the food on my plate not having to throw anyway so I would not be waist full. On Saturday I went to the pool to help my brother practice for his National Lifeguarding course, in order to get to the pool my dad had to drive us. When my dad drives us places it causes air pollution leading to the atmosphere, over time enough pollution creates climate change and global warming. We are also waisting fossil fuel we use to run our vehicles. The final thing interaction I made was taking my dogs out for a walk. This interaction is not necessarily a positive nor negative interaction but taking out my dogs made them really happy and I was able to encounter the geosphere within my surroundings.

When I first woke up on a Sunday morning I went downstairs for breakfast. I did not want to be waist full of my food so I decided to have leftovers from the previous night before. Saving food from previous use was a positive consequence but the leftovers I was eating was “take out” Panago pizza. In order to receive the pizza an employee had to travel in a vehicle polluting the air in order for my family to enjoy our Saturday night dinner, this would be a negative interaction. When I went to Maple Ridge aquatic centre  I realized how much maintenance pools require. The water tank is always flowing and a lot of chlorine is required to keep the pool safe. Even though pools do not have the same water bacteria as rain, lakes/rivers/oceans but the pool water does come from those areas. Pools have a connection to hydrosphere as the water comes from dense clouds of rain falling into bodies of water.

“recycling turns things into other things which is like MAGIC!”

A few actions I will try to prevent myself from implementing; I am going to try and cut down on screen time, to do this I will create a schedule and I will record the amount of time I have been watching TV if I go over the amount of hours I decide is to much then I will do something helpful towards the environment. Something I might commit to are, growing plants in my front yard or maybe going out for a nice walk to get some exercise. After every meal, whenever I have extra food left over I will refrigerate it and save it for left overs so I will not be waist full. One other alternative I could commit to, if I had extra food on my plate after I was done I would put all of my scrap foods in a green waist bin so my food would not be going in the garbage. A way to help prevent loss of species would to try to consume less red meat. I’m not telling you to become a vegetarian, I really enjoy eating meat. I am only suggesting to decrease your regular portion of red meat because research shows that many animals made of red meat play a huge roll in climate gasses. Animals like cows and bulls produce a large amount of methane gas. My final suggestion to help help concur the Earths pollution problem would be to carpool as often as possible, it doesn’t take much to achieve those small little tasks that actually do make a difference. The reason you may not be seeing improvements with Earths global warming is because not enough people are helping out. I encourage everyone to go out and do something time worth to help keep our planet healthy for longer!

In my eyes the  whole point of this assignment was to search for new opportunities that can change your whole life for the better, helping out your own ground to keep clean and safe. This assignment wasn’t only an article that was required to write in order to get a good grade but it was for me to get a better look at my future. In my future I will help the Earth escape from global warming. I know it’s a big goal but I strongly believe if everyone did something as small as picking up someone else’s trash even though it’s not yours, then we can save the planet. We can not do this alone, every one needs to equally commit before we equally destroy our planet Earth.

Easy posters on global warming is global warning

1000+ images about Recycling Quotes on Pinterest | Earth quotes …

ESRL Global Monitoring Division – Education and Outreach

35 Easy Ways To Stop Global Warming

January 20

Artifacts of learning

We started our experience of “Engineering Brightness” half way through December with no idea how important this project was to so many people around the world. To start off our project we contacted Pitt River middle school and schedule a meeting  with their leadership class. My group of three consists of Janna, Sabrina and I, we all went in to there school and gave a presentation. The presentation went extremely well and all of the leadership students were enthusiastic about contributing there funds that are made to the Dominican Republic to help illuminate light poverty. Once winter break was over we started emailing back and forth between students and teachers at Pitt River and we scheduled another date to come in. A few weeks ago we came in for our second visit where all the students were very appreciative and exited for our appearance. We went over a few fundraising ideas and agreed to hold a bake sale from January 31 – February 3. My group and I have made posters that have been put up all around the halls at Pitt, and a few posters will be getting put up in the community hopefully in local restaurants, Starbucks and other shops. Pitt River will be hosting the bake sale and all funds will be going towards buying supplies to make lights to support the other groups in my class who will be doing so. While we were at Pitt River during our second visit, we also discussed doing school visits to local elementary schools. It looks like we will be visiting Kilmer, Central, and Castle Park elementary school sometime next week. At these three elementary schools we will all be giving presentations to the students so they know why we are fundraising and what engineering brightness is about. After our school visits, all five of our schools (Riverside Secondary, Pitt River middle, Central, Castle Park and Kilmore elementary school) we be doing individual fundraisers for the Dominican republic. Pitt River will be continuing on fundraisers for the rest of the school year and at the end they will transfer all the money earned to Riverside so we can purchase all the supplies needed. We are all very exited about the journey we have been going through and have had great enjoyment helping others in need.

Through out this learning experience I have gained the knowledge of how fortunate we are to have all of this fantastic technology. We take things for granted here in Canada because we have never experienced not having something so useful. In the Dominican Republic, Children come home from school to an empty dark house with no cable or any electricity. The life style from Canada to the Dominican are so different. When ever our power goes out we get exited and think yay no school, but When the Dominicans power goes out its not anything exiting, its just an everyday issue they have to deal with. Many children are unable to go to school because it is to cost effective so they are forced to work in the cain fields and do manual labor. The way they are treated is so different form how we are treated, I hardly know one person my age who is 14 and has a part time job. We come home from school and make up excuses of why we didn’t do our homework when kids in the Dominican don’t even have light to do any work at home. We shouldn’t be complaining, we should be thankful for receiving the best education in the world. There are so may thing I have learnt form engineering brightness, such as confidence. Presenting in front of others about this situation has given me confidence on being able to talk in front of different crowds of people.

Over all I am really pleased with how this whole experience has been going. I was able to reconnect with my old classmates while I was at Pitt, and I was able to help a different country half way around the world. I really feel lucky to have had this experience and I am happy that we were able to inform other schools to continue on the fundraising. I really enjoyed having the experience of multiple Skype calls with the Dominican Republic and New Brunswick. Even though we were talking about a serious topic, the Skype calls were fun to check in on them to see how they were doing and to hear what their plans are, it was really special.


January 17

How do cells Multiply

Asexual reproduction is when the offspring is a genetic clone of the single parent. If the parent has a mutation the mutation is guaranteed to be passed down to the offspring. Some examples of animals that are able to create an offspring through asexual reproduction are cloning wasps, captive sharks, komodo dragons, whiptail lizards and marbled crab. In asexual reproduction their are four different methods for reproducing. They are Binary fission, fission, budding and Fragmentation. In asexual reproduction during the process of binary fission, genetic material (DNA) gets duplicated by an organism in the body. Later the DNA split into two parts, which is called cytokinesis. Binary fission is the primary of the reproduction process. Budding is another way of asexual reproduction. In some species, buds are able to be produced in almost any part of the body. Overtime the buds develop into an organism and duplicate the parent cell. Fragmentation is when a new organism grows from a fragment of the parent. All fragments eventually turn into a fully grown individual.

Sexual reproduction is When an offspring is created through a mix of two parents each with 23 chromosmes. The 46 chromosomes get passed down from the parents to the offspring creating the DNA for the child.  The offspring gets inherited genes from the parents with the process of fertilization. There are two types of fertilization, internal and external. For species that use internal fertilization the purpose is so the mother can protect the egg inside of her. The extra protection gives a better chance for the eggs survival because the mom will be supplying everything the egg needs. An example of species that produce internally are mammels. External fertilization occurs mostly in water or areas where it is very wet. When external fertilization occurs often multiple offspring are created. Sometimes the offspring will not make it into adult hood because there are risks for being fertilized in an outdoor climate. A couple of examples of species that produce externally are fish and amphibians.

Pro’s and Con’s of asexual and sexual reproduction.

Pros of sexual reproduction: With sexual reproduction there are two parents involved meaning the offspring will be unique and not exactly the same as either parents. Also the offspring has a chance in not receiving the same decease of the parent because the offspring is not a genetic clone of a single parent. Unlike asexual reproduction it is possible for a new species to be discovered during this process.

Cons of sexual reproduction: Only half the population (females) are able to reproduce and they must have a mate to do so. There has to be two parents to create an offspring and it takes nine months for the child to be born. Within those nine months something can happen to create a miss carriage and there is no guarantee that the baby will be born.

Pros of asexual reproduction: Only one parent is needed to create an offspring. There is a high chance that the offspring will be created successfully. Fertilization is not necessary and the offspring will be the exact same species and will have identical characteristics as its parent. Asexual reproduction includes fewer steps then sexual reproduction making it more reliable.

Cons of sexual reproduction: The offspring would be a genetic clone of its parent meaning the parents mutations or diseases will for sure be passed down to the offspring. There is almost no chance at all for evaluation taking place for the offspring. A disadvantage for plants using the vegetation method is that they are all likely to be effected by the same disease and they can be harmed by the same conditions.

 Meiosis is a form of cell division that produces useful cells such as sperm and egg cells, plant and fungal spores. All cells originate from other cells through a mechanism called cell division. The parent cell splits into two or more cells called daughter cells. Through cell division we are able to pass down genetic information from generation to generation. The daughter cells that meioses produces are only half of the amount a parent cell has. The mother and father chromosomes exchange bits to create  unique chromosomes for the daughter cell. The first step of meiosis starts with chromosomes duplicating. Then the cells go through two rounds of division with the final product of four daughters cells, each with half the amount of chromosomes from the parent cell.
In Meiosis I the sister chromatids blend together at the centromere and form the shape “X “, they become dense compacted structures that are now visible underneath a microscope. Prophase I sister chromatids from the mothers set of chromosomes
pair together with their identical protective chromosomes. The maternal and paternal chromatids exchange pieces of DNA and then recombine to new genetic variations. In a male human, even though the sex chromosomes (X and Y) are not alike they still exchange DNA and pair together. At the end of prophase I, the nuclear membrane breaks down. Metaphase I emerging from a structure called the centriole, meiotic fibres and a long chain of proteins are positioned at either end of the cell. The meiotic spindle hooks onto the fused sister chromatids. At the end of metaphase I, the sister chromatids are at their centromeres and line up in the middle of the cell. Anaphase I the spindle fibres start to separate, pulling sister chromatids with them. The X-shapped
chromosomes start to split and half of each chromosome ends up on opposite sides of the cell. Telophase I the sister chromatids reach the ends of the cell as it splits into two. The result of Meiosis I ends with two daughter cells with each containing a set of fused sister chromatids. The two daughter cells from Meiosis I transition in to Meiosis II where there is no more chromosomes being duplicated.
In Meioses II by the end of the process the number of chromosome will not have changed even though by the end of meiosis II there will be four daughter cells and not two. Prophase II meiotic spindles start to form again after the nuclear membrane starts to break apart. Metaphase II the  meiotic spindles hook onto the centromere of the sister chromatids and they all line up in the centre of the cell. Anaphase II the spindle fibres start to break away and sister chromatids are pulled apart. The individual chromosomes begin to separate on to each end of the cell. Telophase II once the chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell the nuclear membrane forms again and the cell body splits into two. There are now four daughter cells each with the same amount of chromosomes in them. Every single one of the chromosomes are unique because they came from maternal and paternal chromosomes, originally from the parent cell.

Mitosis is similar to Meiosis where the organisms generate new cells through cell division. In this process, the parent cell will divide and produce an identical daughter cell. In Mitosis a cell isolates its duplicated DNA, finally dividing its nucleus into two. Mitosis is divided into four stages (P-MAT), these four stages are also seen in the second half of Meiosis.
Prophase the chromosomes that have been duplicated are combined and can be seen by the sister chromatids. The mitotic spindle and a narrow chain of protein moves to a structure called centrioles at either ends of the cell. Metaphase at the centromere after the nuclear membrane dissolves, the mitotic spindle hooks onto the sister chromatids. The mitotic spindle is now able to move the chromosomes in the cell. At the end of Metaphase all chromosomes are alined in the centre of the cell. Anaphase the mitotic spindle leaves and pulls the sister chromatids apart, leading them to move to opposite ends of the cell. Telophase the chromosomes go to either end of the cell, after cytokinesis occurs when the nuclear membrane reforms and the cell body splits into two. At the end of Mitosis, a cell produces a genetically identical daughter cell.
Mitosis and Meiosis compare and contrast
Compare: Mitosis and Meiosis both use the form of cell division and they both are used for reproducing. They both share many steps of their own process going through P-MAT. Meiosis and mitosis both produce new cells through dividing their parent cell and creating new daughter cells.
Contrast: The purpose of Mitosis is for asexual reproduction, growth and cell regeneration. At the end of the whole mitosis process it ends with a single nuclear division resulting with two nuclei that dived into two new daughter cells. Th nuclei from mitotic division from mitosis are genetically identical from the original nucleus. In mitosis the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
The purpose of Meiosis is sexual reproduction and gametes. At the end of the entire meiosis process there are two nuclear divisions which leads to having four new daughter cells in the end. The nuclei from meiosis are not genetically identical because crossing over occurred and only the nuclei contain one set of chromosomes. In meiosis the daughter cells have half the amount of chromosomes the parent cell has.
 How organisms grow  
Matching + Methods of fertilization
The process of mating includes gametes. Gametes is a male or female germ cell that can be united with the opposite sex during sexual reproduction. For animals it is very different then from humans, many animals have matting seasons during certain times of the year to make sure the environmental conditions will be okay for their offspring. For humans we do not have a specific matting season because the weather conditions do not effect the offspring. The two main types of fertilization are internal where the sperm and egg unite inside the parents body, and external  where the sperm and egg unite outside of the parents bodies.  Sperm cells are deposited inside the females body were they meet an egg cell. The conditions that need to be met to be able to have the fertilized egg go through cell division are, there must be enough nutrients for the dividing embryo. For the proteins and enzymes to function properly during chemical reaction in developing embryo, the temperature must be warm enough. There must be sufficient moisture so the embryo does not dry out. Embryo must be protected from predators and from other environmental factors such as ultra violet radiation.
The Transfer From Pollen to Plant for Fertilization

Pollen is a substance that is powdery and typically yellow. It is discharged from a plant to a clone. Fertilizing plants involving the fission of male and female gametes. Pollen can be transferred by people, bees, butterflies, moths, flies, hummingbirds and wind. The embryo develops in the female part. A few disadvantages on how pollen is transferred are the birds are less immune to disease. The variability and hence adaptability to change the environment has been reduced.  New useful characters are not frequently being introduced. Some advantages on how pollen is transferred are self pollination eliminates some bad inactive characters. The plant does not need to produce large number of pollen grains. Flowers do not develop devices for attracting insect pollinators.

Embryonic Development

Embryonic  development is when the embryo begins to form and starts to develop. For humans, during the first two months after fertilization the embryonic development takes place. Once fertilization is over zygote begins the process of mitosis and a series of rapid cell division occurs. Embryonic development goes through four stages which are morula stage, the blastula stage, the gastrula stage and the neurula stage. The process of embryonic development is stem cells divide, migrate,and specialize. In the early stages of development, the inner cells mass start to form. The inner cells mass are the cells that produce tissues of the body. During gastrulation later in the development, the three germ layers form. After this stage it is common that most cells become more restricted in the types of cells they can produce.


Fetal Development

The stage that occurs before the fetus begins to develop is embryo development. In the first stage of the first trimester, organisms start to develop. The first trimester takes eight weeks of fertilizing the egg with the offspring to be about 28 grams and 9cm long. During the second trimester the offspring grows in the fetus for about 12-16 weeks with the weight of the offspring to be about 650g, and 35cm long. In the final trimester the growth of the fetus continues with the time of 32 weeks being fertilized. At this point the offspring is approximately 3300g and about 40-50cm long.

Internal fertilization  

 Internal fertilization is when the sperm and egg cells meet inside the female body. The fetus starts to develop when the sperm penetrates the egg. After internal fertilization the embryo develops and is taken care of inside the mothers body. The advantages to internal fertilization are, it protects the egg. The embryo is isolated inside the female body and there is a greater chance for a successful fertilization. Some disadvantages of internal fertilization are, there are more limited amounts of offspring being created at any specific time. There are risks of catching sexually transmitted diseases. Sometimes it is harder for the male and female species to come in contact of each other.

External Fertilization

Through the process of spawning, male and female fish and sea urchin release there sperm and egg cells that will unite outside of there bodies. When the sperm cell meets with the egg cell the fertilization process begins. External fertilization is more common for species living in the water. Some advantages of external fertilization are there are normally large numbers of offsprings produced. It is easier to find mate to create offsprings because gametes released often drift from wind and waves in the water. With external reproduction there can be more genetic variations of the offspring. Some disadvantages to external reproduction are there is no guarantee that the sperm will come in contact with the egg, leaving it unfertilized and wasted. There are environmental hazards such as predators which gives no guarantee the offspring will survive. -Angelina Johnston

09 Asexual Reproduction || Reproduction In Animals – YouTube













January 10

Principals of Learning

A few principals of learning that I will be reflecting on are:maxresdefault

“Learning ultimately supports the well-being of the self, the family, the community,the land, the spirits, and the ancestors.”

I find this sentence to be very accurate and truthful, to be able to learn well it is very helpful when your family is applying their support for your interests. There’re students all around the world that feel alone and feel as if they have no support in their education in the community. If we all support each other a little more it would make a big difference to everyone. Most of the time you often hear children say ” I don’t like school ” you can not force a child to enjoy learning but you can encourage someone to enjoy it a little more. A few recommendations I have on how to send your support to others is to let them take the classes they want even if it is not a class that educates you the most. When a student gets to pick their own classes it feels independent and like you are doing the right thing all on your own. I believe that the message this principal of learning is sending is that education will be your supporter in the future.

“Learning involves recognizing the consequences of one’s actions.”

When a teacher is helping a student learn, the teacher has to notice how the student learns. If a student is a visual learner but the teacher does not teach visually then it will be very hard for the student to learn. This is my understanding on this principal of learning. Often at the beginning of the school year in previous classes I have been in, we would have to do a worksheet on the way you learn. For me I find that I learn better visually but for others that is not the case, which is which is why we need to recognize others learning styles.

“Learning requires exploration of one’s identity.”

Throughout life you find your way doing things you thought you might not have enjoyed doing, you take risks and learn from mistakes. During high school it is your time to experiment in different interest of yours. Taking many different classes in high school will help you narrow down your interests. If you never try then you’ll never learn and you may be missing an opportunity that could have turned your life into an amazing rollercoaster of excitement, but you never know until your explore your interest.

How Principals of learning is relatable to the activities we have been doing in class

Principals of learning relates to our SSEP experiment that we did earlier on in the school year. The Student Spaceflight Experiment Program purpose was to create an experiment that would potentially help the astronauts in space. Although my group did not win the contest, I am still able to strongly relate principals of leaning to the SSEP experiment. The propose of principals of leaning is to try to help others.  The very few sentences of principals of leaning are all about how one can make a difference in someone else’s life. I also found that the First Nations principals of learning were very relatable towards engineering brightness. Engineering brightness is a project we have been working on to try and raise as much money as possible to donate to the Dominican Republic for light poverty. We have had many plans and activities going on to support the Dominicans cause. I am hopeful that others will acknowledge the principals of learning and will hopeful stand by them.