# Penny Lab Conclusion

This experiment demonstrated the effects of surface tension using water. The water droplets slowly added onto the coin and with the assistance of the ridge of the coin. The hydrogen and oxygen molecules cohere to each other creating a bond called surface tension. It makes the puddle on the penny strong and be able to hold more than the surface area that the penny provides. For the coins that were drenched in the soap, the surface tension bond was interrupted by the dishwasher soap causing a decrease in droplet holding. In many group results, the average number of droplets on the penny without soap was higher than with soap, significantly higher. Another group had similar results to this group, however, the other groups had more droplets.

All of the results for the soap test were the same, 5 droplets (except for one which was six).

In order to expand the experiment, different soaps can be used and different temperatures of water. To improve the experiment more pennies can be used instead of four. Using a different individual can skew the results so using one person for all of the experiments will improve the experiment.

< With soap

< Without soap

# Scientific Scenario

Nikola Tesla notices that the geniuses are having a hard time developing ideas recently. He asks his friend Albert Einstein about the issue. Einstein proposes to him that thinking upside down will significantly improve the brainstorming of the geniuses. To see if this was true, Tesla arranged five geniuses to be upside down individually before they brainstorm a solution for a riddle that he had created. He then took five other geniuses, separated them individually and allowed them to brainstorm the solution to the same riddle; this time without being upside down. Both groups were left alone for ten minutes in ten identical separate rooms (group A being upside down in those ten minutes and group B being right side up). After those ten minutes, both groups were introduced to the riddle by a projection in the room and were left to solve it within thirty minutes (group A is instructed to sit upright to solve the riddle).

Tesla arranged a total of three sessions changing the riddle for both groups per session. The results he had are as follows: in the first session, all of the members on group A had solved the riddle within the thirty-minute mark. For group B, only two members out of five had solved the riddle with the time that was provided (thirty minutes). In the second session, all of the members in group A had solved the second riddle, this was the same for group B. However, the average time it took for group A to solve the second riddle was eleven minutes higher than group B. In the third and final session, all but one of the members in group A had not solved the riddle within the time (thirty minutes). For group B, three of the five members had solved the riddle within the thirty-minute mark. Can Tesla trust Einstein?

1. What was the initial observational problem that Tesla noticed?

2. What was the control?

3. What was the independent variable?

4. What was the dependent variable?

6. How could the experimental design be improved?

1. What was the initial observational problem that Tesla noticed?

He noticed that the geniuses were struggling to think of ideas.

2. What was the control?

Group B (right side up group).

3. What was the independent variable?

The upside down exercise for ten minutes.

4. What was the dependent variable?

The results of solving the riddle in a specified time (30 minutes).

Based on the results, group B did better however, it is undetermined as more tests need to be made.

6.How could the experimental design be improved?

By increasing the number of people, taking the IQ into account of the geniuses, changing the riddles into a consistent puzzle, checking the sleep of the members and blood pressure and diet. I have more, but enough is said.

Float Your Boat! – Scientific Method Project

CHALLENGE: Make a boat that can float in water and hold the most amount of pennies.

PROBLEM: The limited recourses each group has to make a boat in ten minutes.

HYPOTHESIS:  (Use an “If…then… because ”statement)

If the weight distribution is supporting the surface area of the boat, then the boat will hold many pennies because of the strength in balance the boat has.

IDEA FOR ORIGINAL DESIGN:  Insert image and write a description explaining your thinking/reasoning as to why you chose that particular design.

Right side up                       Upside down

We as a group chose this design because we wanted the maximum balance on our boat so we made a tic tac formation as the base and put aluminum foil on top. Our intention was to make a dent in the middle of the boat and around the boat we make the coins fall off, to stop misbalancing. We also trapped the air in the straws by plugging the straws in marshmallows. This would theoretically prevent drowning if the straws absorb the water and provide an extra cushion. We put the remaining part of the marshmallow in the middle to have middleweight. Our main goal was to prevent tipping.

HOW MANY PENNIES DID YOUR BOAT HOLD?

The boat held 16 pennies.

WHAT WOULD YOU KEEP OR CHANGE ON YOUR BOAT DESIGN IF YOU WERE TO DO THIS AGAIN?

I would change the boat design because ours was ineffective; it was too small to hold many pennies. I would change the size of the boat to be larger, I would also make it deeper rather than a flat raft. The balance was very good (for its size). If I were to think of real boat designs, you don’t see many rafts holding more than two people, so it was a bad idea to create a raft design.